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 Forty Years of Spectroscopic Stellar Astrophysics in JapanThe development of Japanese spectroscopic stellar astrophysics in therecent 40 years is reviewed from an observational point of view. In thisarticle, the research activities are provisionally divided into fourfields: hot stars, hot emission-line (Be) stars, cool stars, and otherstars. Historical developments of the observational facilities atOkayama Astrophysical Observatory (spectrographs and detectors) are alsosummarized in connection with the progress in scientific researchactivities. Herbig Ae/Be Stars in nearby OB AssociationsWe have carried out a study of the early-type stars in nearby OBassociations spanning an age range of ~3-16 Myr, with the aim ofdetermining the fraction of stars that belong to the Herbig Ae/Be class.We studied the B, A, and F stars in the nearby (<=500 pc) OBassociations Upper Scorpius, Perseus OB2, Lacerta OB1, and Orion OB1,with membership determined from Hipparcos data. We also included in ourstudy the early-type stars in the Trumpler 37 cluster, part of the CepOB2 association. We obtained spectra for 440 Hipparcos stars in theseassociations, from which we determined accurate spectral types, visualextinctions, effective temperatures, luminosities and masses, usingHipparcos photometry. Using colors corrected for reddening, we find thatthe Herbig Ae/Be stars and the classical Be (CBe) stars occupy clearlydifferent regions in the JHK diagram. Thus, we use the location on theJHK diagram, as well as the presence of emission lines and of strong 12μm flux relative to the visual, to identify the Herbig Ae/Be stars inthe associations. We find that the Herbig Ae/Be stars constitute a smallfraction of the early-type stellar population even in the youngerassociations. Comparing the data from associations with different agesand assuming that the near-infrared excess in the Herbig Ae/Be starsarises from optically thick dusty inner disks, we determined theevolution of the inner disk frequency with age. We find that the innerdisk frequency in the age range 3-10 Myr in intermediate-mass stars islower than that in the low-mass stars (<1 Msolar) inparticular, it is a factor of ~10 lower at ~3 Myr. This indicates thatthe timescales for disk evolution are much shorter in theintermediate-mass stars, which could be a consequence of more efficientmechanisms of inner disk dispersal (viscous evolution, dust growth, andsettling toward the midplane). On the evolutionary status of Be stars. I. Field Be stars near the SunA sample of 97 galactic field Be stars were studied by taking intoaccount the effects induced by the fast rotation on their fundamentalparameters. All program stars were observed in the BCDspectrophotometric system in order to minimize the perturbationsproduced by the circumstellar environment on the spectral photosphericsignatures. This is one of the first attempts at determining stellarmasses and ages by simultaneously using model atmospheres andevolutionary tracks, both calculated for rotating objects. The stellarages (τ) normalized to the respective inferred time that eachrotating star can spend in the main sequence phase (τ_MS) reveal amass-dependent trend. This trend shows that: a) there are Be starsspread over the whole interval 0  τ/τ_MS  1 of themain sequence evolutionary phase; b) the distribution of points in the(τ/τMS,M/Mȯ) diagram indicates thatin massive stars (M  12~Mȯ) the Be phenomenon ispresent at smaller τ/τ_MS age ratios than for less massive stars(M  12~Mȯ). This distribution can be due to: i)higher mass-loss rates in massive objets, which can act to reduce thesurface fast rotation; ii) circulation time scales to transport angularmomentum from the core to the surface, which are longer the lower thestellar mass. Classification of Spectra from the Infrared Space Observatory PHT-S DatabaseWe have classified over 1500 infrared spectra obtained with the PHT-Sspectrometer aboard the Infrared Space Observatory according to thesystem developed for the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) spectra byKraemer et al. The majority of these spectra contribute to subclassesthat are either underrepresented in the SWS spectral database or containsources that are too faint, such as M dwarfs, to have been observed byeither the SWS or the Infrared Astronomical Satellite Low ResolutionSpectrometer. There is strong overall agreement about the chemistry ofobjects observed with both instruments. Discrepancies can usually betraced to the different wavelength ranges and sensitivities of theinstruments. Finally, a large subset of the observations (~=250 spectra)exhibit a featureless, red continuum that is consistent with emissionfrom zodiacal dust and suggest directions for further analysis of thisserendipitous measurement of the zodiacal background.Based on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), aEuropean Space Agency (ESA) project with instruments funded by ESAMember States (especially the Principle Investigator countries: France,Germany, Netherlands, and United Kingdom) and with the participation ofthe Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) and the NationalAeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Be Star Hα Line Profile VariabilityThe monitoring of the spectroscopic variability of Be stars is crucialfor testing Be star models. Motivated by this, a Be star monitoringproject was developed for undergraduate student research involvement. Wehave been obtaining 0.8 Angstrom/pixel resolution Hα line profilesfor several bright Be stars since 2003 June. These spectra were acquiredusing the UCA Fiber Fed Spectrograph used at the UCA Observatory and theNubbin Ridge Observatory in Royal, AR. H-α line profiles,velocities, and variability are shown for Delta Sco, Chi Oph, Eta PsA,48 Lib, and Upsilon Sgr (HD181615).Funding has been provided by the UCA University Research Council and theArkansas Space Grant Consortium. Formation scenarios for the young stellar associations between galactic longitudes l = 280degr - 360degrWe investigate the spatial distribution, the space velocities and agedistribution of the pre-main sequence (PMS) stars belonging toOphiuchus, Lupus and Chamaeleon star-forming regions (SFRs), and of theyoung early-type star members of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association.These young stellar associations extend over the galactic longituderange from 280degr to 360degr , and are at a distance interval ofaround 100 and 200 pc. This study is based on a compilation ofdistances, proper motions and radial velocities from the literature forthe kinematic properties, and of basic stellar data for the constructionof Hertzsprung-Russel diagrams. Although there was no well-known OBassociation in Chamaeleon, the distances and the proper motions of agroup of 21 B- and A-type stars, taken from the Hipparcos Catalogue,lead us to propose that they form a young association. We show that theyoung early-type stars of the OB associations and the PMS stars of theSFRs follow a similar spatial distribution, i.e., there is no separationbetween the low and the high-mass young stars. We find no difference inthe kinematics nor in the ages of these two populations studied.Considering not only the stars selected by kinematic criteria but thewhole sample of young early-type stars, the scattering of their propermotions is similar to that of the PMS stars and all the young starsexhibit a common direction of motion. The space velocities of theHipparcos PMS stars of each SFR are compatible with the mean values ofthe OB associations. The PMS stars in each SFR span a wide range of ages(from 1 to 20 Myr). The ages of the OB subgroups are 8-10 Myr for UpperScorpius (US), and 16-20 Myr for Upper Centaurus Lupus (UCL) and forLower Centaurus Crux (LCC). Thus, our results do not confirm that UCL isolder than the LCC association. Based on these results and theuncertainties associated with the age determination, we cannot say thatthere is indeed a difference in the age of the two populations. Weanalyze the different scenarios for the triggering of large-scalestar-formation that have been proposed up to now, and argue that mostprobably we are observing a spiral arm that passes close to the Sun. Thealignment of young stars and molecular clouds and the average velocityof the stars in the opposite direction to the Galactic rotation agreewith the expected behavior of star formation in nearby spiral arms.Tables 1 to 4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/404/913 Koordinierte Zusammenarbeit zwischen den VdS-FG 'BAV' und 'Spektroskopie' ?Not Available Rotational Velocities of B StarsWe measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age. Exploring the Full Stellar Population of the Upper Scorpius OB AssociationWe investigate the stellar population and star formation history of theUpper Scorpius OB association, the most nearby region of recent massivestar formation, over the full stellar mass range from 0.1 to 20Msolar. The first part of this paper describes an extensionof our large spectroscopic survey (Preibisch et al., published in 2001)for low-mass pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars in Upper Scorpius. Using themultiobject spectrograph 2dF at the Anglo-Australian Telescope, weobtained spectra of 469 stars with magnitudes R=12.5-18.0 in a 6deg2 area. Among these, we find 68 new PMS stars, nearly allof them M-type stars, by their strong lithium absorption lines. Thetotal area covered by our 2dF survey is now 9 deg2 andcontains 166 new PMS stars. Combining these results with our earlierinvestigation (Preibisch & Zinnecker) yields a sample of 250 PMSstars in the mass range ~0.1 to ~2 Msolar. The location ofthese stars in the HR diagram suggests a mean age of 5 Myr without asignificant age spread. In the second part of this paper, we alsoconsider the population of 114 high-mass members identified in detailedHipparcos studies. We construct a combined HR diagram for the 364 high-and low-mass members and find that the whole stellar population is verywell characterized by a very narrow age distribution around 5 Myr. Weestimate individual masses for all members and construct an empiricalmass function covering the mass range from 0.1 up to 20Msolar. A power-law fit to the mass function gives a slope ofα~-2.6 above ~2 Msolar and a much flatter slope(α~-0.9) below ~0.6 Msolar. The initial mass functionof Upper Sco is not identical, but within the errors consistent withrecent determinations of the field initial mass function. There iscertainly no deficit of low-mass stars in the Upper Sco OB association,but rather a small excess of low-mass stars. Our results on the stellarage distribution confirm earlier indications that the star formationprocess in Upper Sco was triggered and support previous conjectures thatthe triggering event was a supernova shock wave originating from thenearby Upper Centaurus-Lupus association. Variability and pulsations in the Be star 66 Ophiuchi66 Oph is a Be star seen under a moderate inclination angle that showsstrong variability from UV to IR wavelengths. A concise review oflong-term variability history is given. High resolution, high S/Nspectroscopic observations obtained in 1997, 1998 and 2001 andspectropolarimetric observations obtained in 2000 are presented. Theseobservations occurred during a long-term decrease of Hα intensity.Fundamental parameters of the star have been revisited fromBarbier-Chalonge-Divan (BCD) calibrations. New V sin i values areobtained using Fourier transforms applied to observed helium lines and arotational frequency f_rot = 1.29 c d-1 is determined. Timeseries analysis and Fourier Doppler Imaging (FDI) of He I lines (4713,4921, 5876 and 6678 Å) lead for the first time to the detection ofmulti-periodicity in 66 Oph. The two main frequencies found are f = 2.22c d-1 and f = 4.05 c d-1 . They are attributed tonon-radial pulsations and can be associated with mode degree l = 2 and l= 3, respectively. Inspection of Stokes V profiles suggests the presenceof a weak Zeeman signature but further observations are needed toconfirm the detection of a magnetic field in 66 Oph. Based onobservations taken at OHP and Pic du Midi Observatory (France), atMBT/LNA (Brazil) and on Brazilian observing time at La Silla (ESO,Chile). The mass ratio distribution of B-type visual binaries in the Sco OB2 associationA sample of 115 B-type stars in the Sco OB2 association is examined forexistence of visual companions in the J and K_s bands, using the ADONISnear-infrared adaptive optics system and coronograph. Practically allthe components in the separation range 0farcs3 -6farcs4 (45-900 AU) andmagnitudes down to K = 16 were detected. The K and J - K photometry ofthe primaries and differential photometry and astrometry of the 96secondaries are presented. Ten secondaries are new physical components,as inferred from the photometric and statistical criteria, while therest of the newly detected objects are faint background stars. After asmall correction for detection incompleteness and a conversion of thefluxes into masses, an unbiased distribution of the components massratio q was derived. The power law f(q)~ q-0.5 fits theobservations well, whereas a q-1.8 distribution, whichcorresponds to a random pairing of stars, is rejected. The companionstar fraction is 0.20+/-0.04 per decade of separation which iscomparable to the highest measured binary fraction among low-mass PMSstars and ~ 1.6 times higher than the binary fraction of low-mass dwarfsin the solar neighborhood and in open clusters in the same separationrange. Based on observations collected at the European SouthernObservatory, La Silla, Chile (ESO programme 65.H-0179). Tables 1, 3 andthe full version of Table 2 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/382/92 Astrometric radial velocities. III. Hipparcos measurements of nearby star clusters and associationsRadial motions of stars in nearby moving clusters are determined fromaccurate proper motions and trigonometric parallaxes, without any use ofspectroscopy. Assuming that cluster members share the same velocityvector (apart from a random dispersion), we apply a maximum-likelihoodmethod on astrometric data from Hipparcos to compute radial and spacevelocities (and their dispersions) in the Ursa Major, Hyades, ComaBerenices, Pleiades, and Praesepe clusters, and for theScorpius-Centaurus, alpha Persei, and HIP 98321'' associations. Theradial motion of the Hyades cluster is determined to within 0.4 kms-1 (standard error), and that of its individual stars towithin 0.6 km s-1. For other clusters, Hipparcos data yieldastrometric radial velocities with typical accuracies of a few kms-1. A comparison of these astrometric values withspectroscopic radial velocities in the literature shows a good generalagreement and, in the case of the best-determined Hyades cluster, alsopermits searches for subtle astrophysical differences, such as evidencefor enhanced convective blueshifts of F-dwarf spectra, and decreasedgravitational redshifts in giants. Similar comparisons for the ScorpiusOB2 complex indicate some expansion of its associations, albeit slowerthan expected from their ages. As a by-product from the radial-velocitysolutions, kinematically improved parallaxes for individual stars areobtained, enabling Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams with unprecedentedaccuracy in luminosity. For the Hyades (parallax accuracy 0.3 mas), itsmain sequence resembles a thin line, possibly with wiggles in it.Although this main sequence has underpopulated regions at certaincolours (previously suggested to be Böhm-Vitense gaps''), suchare not visible for other clusters, and are probably spurious. Futurespace astrometry missions carry a great potential for absoluteradial-velocity determinations, insensitive to the complexities ofstellar spectra. Based on observations by the ESA Hipparcos satellite.Extended versions of Tables \ref{tab1} and \ref{tab2} are available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.125.8) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/381/446 A Search for High-Velocity Be StarsWe present an analysis of the kinematics of Be stars based uponHipparcos proper motions and published radial velocities. We findapproximately 23 of the 344 stars in our sample have peculiar spacemotions greater than 40 km s-1 and up to 102 kms-1. We argue that these high-velocity stars are the resultof either a supernova that disrupted a binary or ejection by closeencounters of binaries in young clusters. Be stars spun up by binarymass transfer will appear as high-velocity objects if there wassignificant mass loss during the supernova explosion of the initiallymore massive star, but the generally moderate peculiar velocities of BeX-ray binaries indicate that the progenitors lose most of their massprior to the supernova (in accordance with model predictions). Binaryformation models for Be stars predict that most systems bypass thesupernova stage (and do not receive runaway velocities) to createultimately Be+white dwarf binaries. The fraction of Be stars spun up bybinary mass transfer remains unknown, since the post-mass transfercompanions are difficult to detect. High and intermediate-resolution spectroscopy of Be stars 4481 linesWe present an atlas of Hγ , He i lambda 4471 and Mg ii lambda 4481line profiles obtained in a 10 year observation period of 116 Be stars,which enabled many of them to be observed at quite different emissionepochs. From the best fit of the observed He i lambda 4471 line profileswith non-LTE, uniform (Teff,log g) and full limb-darkenedmodel line profiles, we determined the V sin i of the program stars. Toaccount, to some degree, for the line formation peculiarities related tothe rapid rotation-induced non-uniform distributions of temperature andgravity on the stellar surface, the fit was achieved by considering(Teff,log g) as free parameters. This method produced V sin iestimations that correlate with the rotational velocities determined bySlettebak (1982) within a dispersion sigma <= 30 km s-1and without any systematic deviation. They can be considered as given inthe new Slettebak's et al. (1975) system. Only 13 program stars havediscrepant V sin i values. In some objects, this discrepancy could beattributed to binary effects. Using the newly determined V sin iparameters, we found that the ratio of true rotational velocitiesV/Vc of the program Be stars has a very low dispersion aroundthe mean value. Assuming then that all the stars are rigid rotators withthe same ratio V(/lineω)/Vc, we looked for the value of/line ω that better represents the distribution of V sini/Vc for randomly oriented rotational axes. We obtained/lineω = 0.795. This value enabled us to determine the probableinclination angle of the stellar rotation axis of the program stars. Inthe observed line profiles of Hγ , He i lambda 4471, Mg ii lambda4481 and Fe ii lambda 4351 we measured several parameters related to theabsorption and/or emission components, such as: equivalent width,residual emission and/or absorption intensity, FWHM, emission peakseparations, etc. The parameters related to the Hγ line emissionprofiles were used to investigate the structure of the nearbyenvironment of the central star. From the characteristics of thecorrelations between these quantities and the inferred inclinationangle, we concluded that in most of cases the Hγ line emissionforming regions may not be strongly flattened. Using a simplerepresentation of the radiation flux emitted by the star+envelopesystem, we derived first order estimates of physical parameterscharacterizing the Hγ line emission formation region. Thus, weobtained that the total extent of the Hγ region is Rf=~ 2.5 +/- 1.0 R* and that the density distribution in theselayers can be mimicked with a power law rho ~ R-alpha , wherealpha =2.5+2.2-0.6. The same approach enabled usto estimate the optical depth of the Hγ line emission formationregion. From its dependence with the aspect angle, we concluded thatthese regions are caracterized by a modest flattening and that the rho(equator)/rho (pole) density contrast of the circumstellar envelope nearthe star should be two orders of magnitude lower than predicted bymodels based on a priori disc-shaped circumstellar envelopes. We foundthat the separation between the emission peaks, Deltap, andthe full width at half maximum, Delta 1/2, of the Hγline emission are not only sensitive to kinematic effects, but to lineoptical depth as well. This finding agrees with previous theoreticalpredictions and confirms that Huang's (1972) relation overestimates theextent of the Hγ line emission formation region. Data obtained atCASLEO operated under agreement between the CONICET and the NationalUniversities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina, at ESOLa Silla, Chile and at OHP, France.}\fnmsep\thanks{Tables 2 to 7 andFigs. 1 and 2 are only available in full in electronic form at CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/378/861}} \subtitle{Anatlas of Hγ , He {\fontsize {10pt}{12pt}\selectfont I} 4471 and Mg{\fontsize {10pt}{12pt}\selectfont II Stellar and circumstellar activity of the Be star mu Centauri. III. Multiline nonradial pulsation modelingAfter the description and time series analysis of the variability of thecircumstellar and stellar lines, respectively, in Papers I and II ofthis series, this paper sets out to model the stellar variability interms of multi-mode nonradial pulsation (nrp), but also adds another 109echelle spectra to the database, obtained in 1999. While thenear-circumstellar emission has faded further, the six periods and theassociated line profile variabilities (lpv) have remained unchanged. Forthe modeling, P1 of the periods P1- P4close to 0.5 day, and P5 of the two periods P5 andP6 near 0.28 day were selected, because they have the largestamplitude in their respective groups, which are characterized by theirown distinct phase-propagation pattern. Permissable ranges of mass,radius, effective temperature, projected equatorial rotation velocity,and inclination angle were derived from calibrations and observationsavailable in the literature. A total of 648 different combinations ofthese parameters were used to compute a number of trial series of lineprofiles for comparison with the observations. Next to reproducing theobserved variability, the primary constraint on all models was that thetwo finally adopted solutions for P1 and P5 had tobe based on only one common set of values of these quantities. This was,in fact, accomplished. Townsend's \cite{1997MNRAS.284..839T} code Brucewas deployed to model the pulsational perturbations of the rotationallydistorted stellar surface. With the help of Kylie, from the same author,these perturbations were converted into observable quantities. The localflux and the atmosphere structure were obtained from a grid of Atlas9models with solar metallicity, while the formation of 5967 spectrallines was calculated with the LTE code of \cite{bht}. An initial coarsegrid of models using all these ingredients was computed for all 12 nrpmodes with l <= 3 and m !=q 0. Comparison with the observedvariability of C ii 4267, which is the best compromise betweencontamination by circumstellar emission and significance of thevariability, yielded (l = 2, m = +2) for P1 (and, byimplication, P2-P4) and (l = 3, m = +3) forP5 (and P6) as the best matching nrp modes. At 9Msun / 3.4 Rsun and 440 km s-1,respectively, the mass-to-radius ratio and the equatorial velocity areon the high side, but not in fundamental conflict with establishedknowledge. The photometric variations of all six modes combine at mostto a maximal peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.015 mag, consistent with thenon-detection of any of the spectroscopic periods by photometry. Withoutinclusion of additional physical processes, present-day linear nrpmodels are fundamentally unable to explain major red-blue asymmetries inthe power distribution, which however seem to be limited to only somelines and the modes with the highest amplitudes. Nevertheless, the modelreproduces very well a wide range of observed details. Most notableamong them are: (i) Although all modeling was done on the residuals fromthe mean profiles only, the mean spectrum predicted by the model closelyfits the observed one. (ii) Dense series of high-quality spectraobtained as early as 1987 and as recently as 1999, publishedindependently but not included in the modeling efforts of this paper,are matched in great detail by the multiperiodic nrp model. As inomega CMa, the inferred modes are retrograde in thecorotating frame and in the observer's frame appear prograde onlybecause of the rapid rotation. This has implications for models of theejection of matter during line emission outbursts, which in mu Cen arecorrelated with the beating of modes in the 0.5-d group of periods. Thelength of the corotating periods as well as the horizontal-to-verticalvelocity amplitude ratios suggest a g-mode character. Based onobservations collected at the European Southern Observatory at La Silla,Chile, ESO proposal Nos.~55.D-0502, 56.D-0381, 58.D-0697, 63.H-0080. Statistical analysis of intrinsic polarization, IR excess and projected rotational velocity distributions of classical Be starsWe present the results of statistical analyses of a sample of 627 Bestars. The parameters of intrinsic polarization (p*),projected rotational velocity (v sin i), and near IR excesses have beeninvestigated. The values of p* have been estimated for a muchlarger and more representative sample of Be stars (~490 objects) thanpreviously. We have confirmed that most Be stars of early spectral typehave statistically larger values of polarization and IR excesses incomparison with the late spectral type stars. It is found that thedistributions of p* diverge considerably for the differentspectral subgroups. In contrast to late spectral types (B5-B9.5), thedistribution of p* for B0-B2 stars does not peak at the valuep*=0%. Statistically significant differences in the meanprojected rotational velocities (/line{vsin i}) are found for differentspectral subgroups of Be stars in the sense that late spectral typestars (V luminosity class) generally rotate faster than early types, inagreement with previously published results. This behaviour is, however,not obvious for the III-IV luminosity class stars. Nevertheless, thecalculated values of the ratio vt/vc of the truerotational velocity, vt, to the critical velocity forbreak-up, vc, is larger for late spectral type stars of allluminosity classes. Thus, late spectral type stars appear to rotatecloser to their break-up rotational velocity. The distribution of nearIR excesses for early spectral subgroups is bi-modal, the position ofthe second peak displaying a maximum value E(V-L)~ 1 . m 3for O-B1.5 stars, decreasing to E(V-L)~0. m8 for intermediatespectral types (B3-B5). It is shown that bi-modality disappears for latespectral types (B6-B9.5). No correlations were found betweenp* and near IR excesses and between E(V-L) and vsin i for thedifferent subgroups of Be stars. In contrast to near IR excesses, arelation between p* and far IR excesses at 12 mu m is clearlyseen. A clear relation between p* and vsin i (as well asbetween p* and /line{vsin i}/vc) is found by thefact that plots of these parameters are bounded by a triangular"distribution of p*: vsin i, with a decrease of p*towards very small and very large vsin i (and /line{vsini}/vc) values. The latter behaviour can be understood in thecontext of a larger oblateness of circumstellar disks for the stars witha rapid rotation. From the analysis of correlations between differentobservational parameters we conclude that circumstellar envelopes forthe majority of Be stars are optically thin disks with the range of thehalf-opening angle of 10degr Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 The proper motions of fundamental stars. I. 1535 stars from the Basic FK5A direct combination of the positions given in the HIPPARCOS cataloguewith astrometric ground-based catalogues having epochs later than 1939allows us to obtain new proper motions for the 1535 stars of the BasicFK5. The results are presented as the catalogue Proper Motions ofFundamental Stars (PMFS), Part I. The median precision of the propermotions is 0.5 mas/year for mu alpha cos delta and 0.7mas/year for mu delta . The non-linear motions of thephotocentres of a few hundred astrometric binaries are separated intotheir linear and elliptic motions. Since the PMFS proper motions do notinclude the information given by the proper motions from othercatalogues (HIPPARCOS, FK5, FK6, etc.) this catalogue can be used as anindependent source of the proper motions of the fundamental stars.Catalogue (Table 3) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strastg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/365/222 250 GHz observations of Be starsNew 250 GHz flux density measurements with the 30 m telescope at PicoVeleta are presented for 23 Be stars. We suggest that the radio spectralindex is typically close to 1.4 for these stars. We present in adiscusssion of own and literature data some evidence that in few casesslow variations with a time scale of about a year occur. Both evidenceis compatible with the idea that there is no stellar activity type radioemission of Be stars but a maybe slightly modulated quiescent radiationof the outer parts of selfsimilar circumstellar disks. An immediateimprovement of existing models is not possible. Hα observations of Be starsWe present here the Hα spectra of 44 Be stars taken at aresolution of 0.5 Å. From the spectra, different emission lineparameters have been deduced. A study of the correlations betweendifferent pairs of these parameters has been made with a view tounderstanding the mechanisms of line formation and shaping in Be stars. Stellar and circumstellar activity in the Be star EW Lacertae from the 1993 multi-site campaignA multi-site, multi-technique campaign on the Be star EW Lac was heldfor about 9 days in August-September 1993. We present results of theanalysis of visual, high S/N spectroscopic data (He I 6678 Å andHα ). Search for short-term variability was carried out on He I6678 (line profiles, radial velocity (RV), equivalent width (EW), fullwidth at half-maximum (FWHM) on the absorption part of the line profileand on violet (V) and red (R) emission peaks) and on Hα emissionline (line profiles, EW, V, R and V/R ratio). The presence ofmulti-periodicity is confirmed and we detected the frequencies found in1989 by Floquet et al. (1992) during a 8-day mono-site campaign.Possible non-radial pulsation solutions for the main frequenciesdetected are l ~ 2-3, | m | ~ 2-3. We found evidence on the He I 6678line of episodic matter outflows through the presence of relativelybroad, variable absorption line-profile variations. At least one sharpabsorption feature was also observed slowly crossing the stellar disc.It is attributed to a blob of matter temporarily orbiting the star. Abrief account is given of broad-band polarimetric observations,performed over 6 nights. A correlation is found between the variation inintrinsic polarization level in the B-band and He I 6678 Åstrength. Finally, we present a simple model that reproduces rather wellthe additional pseudo-photosphere" contribution in 1993 as opposed to1989. Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part I. Basic fundamental stars with direct solutionsThe FK6 is a suitable combination of the results of the HIPPARCOSastrometry satellite with ground-based data, measured over more than twocenturies and summarized in the FK5. Part I of the FK6 (abbreviatedFK6(I)) contains 878 basic fundamental stars with direct solutions. Suchdirect solutions are appropriate for single stars or for objects whichcan be treated like single stars. From the 878 stars in Part I, we haveselected 340 objects as "astrometrically excellent stars", since theirinstantaneous proper motions and mean (time-averaged) ones do not differsignificantly. Hence most of the astrometrically excellent stars arewell-behaving "single-star candidates" with good astrometric data. Thesestars are most suited for high-precision astrometry. On the other hand,199 of the stars in Part I are Δμ binaries in the sense ofWielen et al. (1999). Many of them are newly discovered probablebinaries with no other hitherto known indication of binarity. The FK6gives, besides the classical "single-star mode" solutions (SI mode),other solutions which take into account the fact that hidden astrometricbinaries among "apparently single-stars" introduce sizable "cosmicerrors" into the quasi-instantaneously measured HIPPARCOS proper motionsand positions. The FK6 gives in addition to the SI mode the "long-termprediction (LTP) mode" and the "short-term prediction (STP) mode". TheseLTP and STP modes are on average the most precise solutions forapparently single stars, depending on the epoch difference with respectto the HIPPARCOS epoch of about 1991. The typical mean error of anFK6(I) proper motion in the single-star mode is 0.35 mas/year. This isabout a factor of two better than the typical HIPPARCOS errors for thesestars of 0.67 mas/year. In the long-term prediction mode, in whichcosmic errors are taken into account, the FK6(I) proper motions have atypical mean error of 0.50 mas/year, which is by a factor of more than 4better than the corresponding error for the HIPPARCOS values of 2.21mas/year (cosmic errors included). Multicolor Polarimetry of Selected BE Stars: 1995-1998A new polarimeter called AnyPol has been used at Limber Observatory for4 yr to monitor annually the broadband linear polarization of a sampleof bright northern Be stars. This is the fourth report on a programstarted in 1985 at McDonald Observatory and the first one to comeentirely from the new installation. Although no variability was detectedat the 3 sigma level during the current reporting period, analysis ofthe full 13 yr data set is beginning to reveal hints of long-termvariability that may provide clues for understanding the Be phenomenon. A HIPPARCOS Census of the Nearby OB AssociationsA comprehensive census of the stellar content of the OB associationswithin 1 kpc from the Sun is presented, based on Hipparcos positions,proper motions, and parallaxes. It is a key part of a long-term projectto study the formation, structure, and evolution of nearby young stellargroups and related star-forming regions. OB associations are unboundmoving groups,'' which can be detected kinematically because of theirsmall internal velocity dispersion. The nearby associations have a largeextent on the sky, which traditionally has limited astrometricmembership determination to bright stars (V<~6 mag), with spectraltypes earlier than ~B5. The Hipparcos measurements allow a majorimprovement in this situation. Moving groups are identified in theHipparcos Catalog by combining de Bruijne's refurbished convergent pointmethod with the Spaghetti method'' of Hoogerwerf & Aguilar.Astrometric members are listed for 12 young stellar groups, out to adistance of ~650 pc. These are the three subgroups Upper Scorpius, UpperCentaurus Lupus, and Lower Centaurus Crux of Sco OB2, as well as VelOB2, Tr 10, Col 121, Per OB2, alpha Persei (Per OB3), Cas-Tau, Lac OB1,Cep OB2, and a new group in Cepheus, designated as Cep OB6. Theselection procedure corrects the list of previously known astrometricand photometric B- and A-type members in these groups and identifiesmany new members, including a significant number of F stars, as well asevolved stars, e.g., the Wolf-Rayet stars gamma^2 Vel (WR 11) in Vel OB2and EZ CMa (WR 6) in Col 121, and the classical Cepheid delta Cep in CepOB6. Membership probabilities are given for all selected stars. MonteCarlo simulations are used to estimate the expected number of interloperfield stars. In the nearest associations, notably in Sco OB2, thelater-type members include T Tauri objects and other stars in the finalpre-main-sequence phase. This provides a firm link between the classicalhigh-mass stellar content and ongoing low-mass star formation. Detailedstudies of these 12 groups, and their relation to the surroundinginterstellar medium, will be presented elsewhere. Astrometric evidencefor moving groups in the fields of R CrA, CMa OB1, Mon OB1, Ori OB1, CamOB1, Cep OB3, Cep OB4, Cyg OB4, Cyg OB7, and Sct OB2, is inconclusive.OB associations do exist in many of these regions, but they are eitherat distances beyond ~500 pc where the Hipparcos parallaxes are oflimited use, or they have unfavorable kinematics, so that the groupproper motion does not distinguish it from the field stars in theGalactic disk. The mean distances of the well-established groups aresystematically smaller than the pre-Hipparcos photometric estimates.While part of this may be caused by the improved membership lists, arecalibration of the upper main sequence in the Hertzsprung-Russelldiagram may be called for. The mean motions display a systematicpattern, which is discussed in relation to the Gould Belt. Six of the 12detected moving groups do not appear in the classical list of nearby OBassociations. This is sometimes caused by the absence of O stars, but inother cases a previously known open cluster turns out to be (part of) anextended OB association. The number of unbound young stellar groups inthe solar neighborhood may be significantly larger than thoughtpreviously. Five-colour photometry of OB-stars in the Southern HemisphereObservations of OB-stars, made in 1959 and 1960 at the Leiden SouthernStation near Hartebeespoortdam, South Africa, with the VBLUW photometerattached to the 90 cm light-collector, are given in this paper. They arecompared with photometry obtained by \cite[Graham (1968),]{gra68}\cite[Walraven & Walraven (1977),]{wal77} \cite[Lub & Pel(1977)]{lub77} and \cite[Van Genderen et al. (1984).]{gen84} Formulaefor the transformation of the present observations to those of\cite[Walraven & Walraven (1977)]{wal77} and \cite[Lub & Pel(1977)]{lub77} are given. Table 4 is only available in electronic format the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Long-term visual spectrophotometric behaviour of Be stars. II. Correlations with fundamental stellar parameters and interpretationThe long-term visual spectrophotometric (SPh) behaviour of Be stars as afunction of fundamental stellar parameters is studied. Some previous SPhresults obtained by other authors are confirmed. Moreover, a tendencyfor temperature and aspect angle dependency of SPh variations is found.From the characteristics of visual SPh behaviour in Be stars we deriveconstraints for models of regions in circumstellar envelopes where thevisual continuum spectrum is formed: (i) The SPh emission and absorptionphases should not imply preferential aspect angles, as they can bothappear whatever the stellar inclination. This phenomenon cannot bealways accounted for by strongly flattened circumstellar envelopes; (ii)Radii of the visible continuum forming regions cannot be larger than afew R_*; (iii) Electron densities of these regions should not exceed N_e~ 10(13) cm(-3) ; (iv) Electron temperature of circumstellar layersproducing the SPh emission phases compare with the stellar Balmercontinuum radiation temperature and it is much lower in those producingthe SPh absorption phases. Three scenarios were studied to produce theobserved characteristics of emissions in the V magnitude and in thesecond component of Balmer discontinuity (Delta D) during the SPhemission phases: (a) expansion of a massive circumstellar shell thatpreserves circumstellar envelope flattening; (b) expansion of acircumstellar shell which increases the global flattening, so that adisc-like structure is formed; (c) continuous mass ejection thatincreases the storage of mass in a constant volume with a givenflattening. Mechanisms (a) and (b) produce a double valued (DeltaV,Delta D) SPh relation, while (c) produces a single valued relation.Only mechanisms (a) and (c) can easily produce the observed amounts ofemission Delta V and Delta D without violating the modeling constraintsfrom (i) to (iv) imposed by observations. The model SPh slopes of (DeltaV,Delta D) show the global sin i and T_eff observed dependencies. Thescenarios used to describe the double valued (Delta V,Delta D) suggestanother possible way how to build up circumstellar envelopes around Bestars. Long-term variability of the Be/X-ray binary A0535+26. I - Optical and UV spectroscopyThe results of a seven-yr optical and UV spectroscopic study of thehigh-mass X-ray binary A0535+26 are presented. It was found thatthroughout the period of the observations the line profile of H-alphashowed considerable variability. A correlation between the equivalentwidth of H-alpha and both V-band magnitude and (B-V) color excess wasobserved, albeit with considerable scatter present in the data set. Agiant X-ray flare in early 1994 was accompanied by a fading in opticaland infrared photometric bands, and a reduction in the equivalent widthof H-alpha. When the star was observed in 1994 September, it was foundto have developed a double-peaked H-alpha profile, and furtherobservations saw the V/R peak ratio vary cyclically, with a period ofabout one yr. If this is identified as a global one-armed oscillation,it becomes the shortest period ever observed in a Be star. Theaccompanying photometric and spectroscopic observations provide a testof any theory seeking to describe the onset and behavior of such adensity wave. Long-term visual spectrophotometric behaviour of Be starsThe long-term spectrophotometric variations of 49 Be stars are studiedusing the U and V magnitudes of the UBV system, the total Balmerdiscontinuity D and the visible gradient Phi _rb. BCD spectrophotometricand photometric data in five different photometric systems, obtained inmost cases since 1950 and reduced to the BCD system, were used. The(U,D), (V,D), (Phi _rb,D) and (Phi _rb,V) correlations obtained differfrom star to star and they can be single or double-valued. They differclearly for Be phases or Be-shell phases. Be stars with small Vsin ishowing the spectrophotometric shell behaviour'': D > D_*, werefound. This finding implies either that strongly flattened models ofcircumstellar envelopes are in doubt for these stars, or that not all Bestars are rapid rotators. Comparison of observed variations with thosepredicted for model Be stars with spherical circumstellar envelopes ofvariable densities and dimensions implies that spectrophotometricpatterns of Be phases are due to circumstellar envelopes in low opacityregimes, while those of spectrophotometric shell phases are due tocircumstellar envelopes in high opacity regimes. In a given star, theenvelope regions responsible for the observed variations of D and Phi_rbin spectrophotometric shell phases seem to be smaller and denser thanthose producing the observed variations of these parameters inspectrophotometric Be phases. The high positive RV found in strong shellphases might favor the formation of compact circumstellar layers nearthe star. Figure 6 is only available in electronic form at CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Investigation of the variability of bright Be stars using HIPPARCOS photometryThe high accuracy and the homogeneity of Hipparcos data for bright starshave allowed us to quantify the degree of variability of Be stars. Thisdegree has been found to be highly dependent on the temperature of thestar. Rapid variability is the main feature of the 86% of early Be andless than 20% of late Be stars taking into account the limit ofdetection considered. In addition to Be stars reported in the Hipparcoscatalogue (ESA 1997) as short-period variables, we have been able toenlarge the number of detections as well as to confirm periodspreviously determined. Be stars that show larger amplitude rapidvariations are proposed as candidates for a search of multiperiodicityi.e. as non-radial pulsators. We have also searched for the presence ofoutbursts and fading events in the Hipparcos data. Outbursts have beenfrequently and preferentially detected in early Be stars with rather lowto moderate v sini while fading events seem to be more conspicuous instars with higher v sini. Mid-term and long-term variations have alsobeen investigated. Several stars have shown some evidence of temporaryquasi-periodic oscillations ranging between 10 and 200 days. Finallyinformation concerning long-term variations is reported. Cycles shorterthan or equal to the Hipparcos mission have mainly been detected instars earlier than B6. Long-term time scales of late Be stars areconfirmed to be longer by far. Tables 1 and 2 are only available inelectronic form at CDS via ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Long-term photometry of Be stars. III. Evidence for periodic outbursts of lambda ERI and photometric activity in HR2142Stromgren differential uvby photometry of lambda Eri and HR2142 isanalyzed. The data were taken during the time interval 1983-1994 in theframework of the Long-Term Photometry of Variables project at La Silla.lambda Eri exhibited four photometric events (probably associated withline emission episodes) that last several months and which werecharacterized by a common pattern of change in all passbands ( ~ +/-10(-3) mag/day) along with an apparent decrease of the amplitude of theshort-term variability and an increase of the stellar temperature. Asearch for periodicities reveals that these events fit a 486d recurrencetime. On the other hand, HR2142 showed a relatively quiet" long-termphotometric behaviour, the orbital period being detected only marginallyin the photometric data set. In contrast, a 344d period optimally fitsthe data. We discuss the possibility of an internal clock" regulatingthe outburst activity of lambda Eri and show that the photometricvariability of HR2142 can hardly be explained by its interacting binarynature. We also discuss an empirical relationship found between frac{partial c1}{partial u} and v sini in a sample of 11 Bestars. Based on observations obtained at ESO, Chile
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