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|Black Hole Masses of Active Galaxies with Double-peaked Balmer Emission Lines|
We have obtained near-IR spectra of five AGNs that exhibit double-peakedBalmer emission lines (NGC 1097, Pictor A, PKS 0921-213, 1E0450.30-1817, and IRAS 0236.6-3101). The stellar velocity dispersions ofthe host galaxies were measured from the Ca II λλ8494,8542, 8662 absorption lines and were found to range from 140 to 200 kms-1. Using the well-known correlation between the black holemass and the stellar velocity dispersion, the black hole masses in thesegalaxies were estimated to range from 4×107 to1.2×108 Msolar. We supplement theobservations presented here with estimates of the black holes masses forfive additional double-peaked emitters (Arp 102B, 3C 390.3, NGC 4579,NGC 4203, and M81) obtained by other authors using similar methods.Using these black hole masses, we infer the ratio of the bolometricluminosity to the Eddington luminosity,(Lbol/LEdd). We find that two objects (Pictor Aand PKS 0921-213) have Lbol/LEdd~0.2, whereas theother objects have Lbol/LEdd<~10-2(nearby, low-luminosity double-peaked emitters are the most extreme,with Lbol/LEdd<~10-4). The physicaltimescales in the outer regions of the accretion disks (atr~103GM/c2) in these objects were also estimatedand range from a few months for the dynamical timescale to severaldecades for the sound crossing timescale. The profile variability inthese objects is typically an order of magnitude longer than thedynamical time, but we note that variability occurring on the dynamicaltimescale has not been ruled out by the observations.Based on observations carried out at Cerro Tololo Inter-AmericanObservatory, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under a cooperativeagreement with the National Science Foundation.
|Statistical Constraints for Astrometric Binaries with Nonlinear Motion|
Useful constraints on the orbits and mass ratios of astrometric binariesin the Hipparcos catalog are derived from the measured proper motiondifferences of Hipparcos and Tycho-2 (Δμ), accelerations ofproper motions (μ˙), and second derivatives of proper motions(μ̈). It is shown how, in some cases, statistical bounds can beestimated for the masses of the secondary components. Two catalogs ofastrometric binaries are generated, one of binaries with significantproper motion differences and the other of binaries with significantaccelerations of their proper motions. Mathematical relations betweenthe astrometric observables Δμ, μ˙, and μ̈ andthe orbital elements are derived in the appendices. We find a remarkabledifference between the distribution of spectral types of stars withlarge accelerations but small proper motion differences and that ofstars with large proper motion differences but insignificantaccelerations. The spectral type distribution for the former sample ofbinaries is the same as the general distribution of all stars in theHipparcos catalog, whereas the latter sample is clearly dominated bysolar-type stars, with an obvious dearth of blue stars. We point outthat the latter set includes mostly binaries with long periods (longerthan about 6 yr).
|B Star Rotational Velocities in h and χ Persei: A Probe of Initial Conditions during the Star Formation Epoch?|
Projected rotational velocities (vsini) have been measured for 216 B0-B9stars in the rich, dense h and χ Persei double cluster and comparedwith the distribution of rotational velocities for a sample of fieldstars having comparable ages (t~12-15 Myr) and masses (M~4-15Msolar). For stars that are relatively little evolved fromtheir initial locations on the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) (those withmasses M~4-5 Msolar), the mean vsini measured for the h andχ Per sample is slightly more than 2 times larger than the meandetermined for field stars of comparable mass, and the cluster and fieldvsini distributions differ with a high degree of significance. Forsomewhat more evolved stars with masses in the range 5-9Msolar, the mean vsini in h and χ Per is 1.5 times thatof the field; the vsini distributions differ as well, but with a lowerdegree of statistical significance. For stars that have evolvedsignificantly from the ZAMS and are approaching the hydrogen exhaustionphase (those with masses in the range 9-15 Msolar), thecluster and field star means and distributions are only slightlydifferent. We argue that both the higher rotation rates and the patternof rotation speeds as a function of mass that differentiatemain-sequence B stars in h and χ Per from their field analogs werelikely imprinted during the star formation process rather than a resultof angular momentum evolution over the 12-15 Myr cluster lifetime. Wespeculate that these differences may reflect the effects of the higheraccretion rates that theory suggests are characteristic of regions thatgive birth to dense clusters, namely, (1) higher initial rotationspeeds; (2) higher initial radii along the stellar birth line, resultingin greater spin-up between the birth line and the ZAMS; and (3) a morepronounced maximum in the birth line radius-mass relationship thatresults in differentially greater spin-up for stars that become mid- tolate-B stars on the ZAMS.
|An empirical temperature calibration for the Δ a photometric system . I. The B-type stars|
We establish an empirical effective temperature calibration of mainsequence, luminosity class V to III B-type stars for the Δ aphotometric system which was originally developed to detect magneticchemically peculiar objects of the upper main sequence (early B-type toearly F-type) at 5200 Å. However, this system provides the index(g_1-y) which shows an excellent correlation with (B-V) as well as (b-y)and can be used as an indicator of the effective temperature. This issupplemented by a very accurate color-magnitude diagram, y or V versus(g_1-y), which can be used, for example, to determine the reddening,distance and age of an open cluster. This makes the Δ aphotometric system an excellent tool to investigate theHertzsprung-Russell-Diagram (HRD) in more detail. Using thereddening-free parameters and already established calibrations withinthe Strömgren uvbyβ, Geneva 7-color and Johnson UBV systems, apolynomial fit of third degree for the averaged effective temperaturesto the individual (g_1-y)0 values was derived. For thispurpose, data from the literature as well as new observations were takenresulting in 225 suitable bright normal B-type objects. The statisticalmean of the error for this sample is 238 K which is sufficient toinvestigate the HRD of distant galactic open clusters as well asextragalactic aggregates in the future.
|Rotational Velocities of B Stars|
We measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are ``nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age.
|Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics|
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (126.96.36.199) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521
|An extensive Delta a-photometric survey of southern B and A type bright stars|
Photoelectric photometry of 803 southern BS objects in the Deltaa-system as detection tool for magnetic chemically peculiar (=CP2) starshas been carried out and compared to published spectral types. Thestatistical yield of such objects detected by both techniques ispractically the same. We show that there are several factors whichcontaminate the search for these stars, but this contamination is onlyof the order of 10% in both techniques. We find a smooth transition fromnormal to peculiar stars. Our sample exhibits the largest fraction ofCP2 stars at their bluest colour interval, i.e. 10% of all stars in thecolour range -0.19 <= B-V < -0.10 or -0.10 <= b-y < -0.05.No peculiar stars based on the Delta a-criterion were found at bluercolours. Towards the red side the fraction of CP2 stars drops to about3% for positive values of B-V or b-y with red limits roughlycorresponding to normal stars of spectral type A5. The photometricbehaviour of other peculiar stars: Am, HgMn, delta Del, lambda Boo, Heabnormal stars, as well as Be/shell stars and supergiants shows someslight, but definite deviations from normal stars. Spectroscopic andvisual binaries are not distinguished from normal stars in their Delta abehaviour. The results of this work justify larger statistical work(e.g. in open clusters) employing more time-saving photometric methods(CCD). \newpage Based on observations obtained at the European SouthernObservatory, La Silla, Chile. This research has made use of the Simbaddatabase, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France. Table 2 is only availablein electronic form via anonymous ftp 188.8.131.52 orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|A Holistic View of the Magnetic Field in the Eridanus/Orion Region|
We present observations of 21 cm emission-line Zeeman splitting at 217positions in the Orion/Eridanus loop region and incorporate them withstellar polarization data in a partially successful attempt to develop aholistic interpretation of the magnetic field structure on small andlarge size scales. We develop the "paraboloidal model" to describe theidealized perturbation to ambient magnetic field lines expected for aworm/chimney structure. We compare the magnetic field data to this modeland find fair agreement for part of the region. On the small scale ofone of the molecular clouds, previous interpretations invoke a helicalfield; in contrast, our interpretation invokes the Eridanus shock andits interaction with dense molecular clouds, in which the observedreversal in the line-of-sight field occurs naturally.
|The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright OB-type stars.|
For the detailed statistical analysis of the X-ray emission of hot starswe selected all stars of spectral type O and B listed in the Yale BrightStar Catalogue and searched for them in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Inthis paper we describe the selection and preparation of the data andpresent a compilation of the derived X-ray data for a complete sample ofbright OB stars.
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|High-resolution CA II observations of the local interstellar medium|
High-resolution absorption measurements of the interstellar Ca II K lineobserved toward 46 early-type stars in the local ISM (LISM) arepresented. Ca II was detected in 36 of the 46 stars with 82 individualcloud components identified. Ca II was detected to most of the starscloser than 50 pc, except in the region of the Galactic quadrant l =180-270 degrees which also contains the empty line of sight to B CMa at220 pc. The mean local standard of rest velocity of the 82 Ca IIcomponents implies that the LISM clouds are associated with the motionof the solar neighborhood and not the sun. If the present data arecombined with other nearby Ca II component velocities taken from theliterature, then a cloud centered approximately at l = 90 deg, b = -40deg moving coherently with the local interstellar wind vector issupported at a significance level of 99 percent. The Ca II data havebeen combined with Na I data for the same stars to produce a N(NaI)/N(Ca II) ratio for each identified absorption feature. This ratioplotted against the local standard of rest velocities of the cloudsshows that the Routly-Spitzer effect exists down to +/- 10 km/s, whichsupports grain desorption/destruction models that are efficient atreturning calcium to the gas phase at these low velocities.
|Studies of the local interstellar medium. VIII - Morphology and kinematics of the diffuse interstellar clouds toward Orion|
Interstellar clouds in the direction of the Orion association show onlypositive velocities for target stars within 190 pc of the sun, and bothpositive and negative velocities for more distant target stars,confirming an earlier prediction by Cowie, Songaila, and York (1979).The nearby positive velocity cloud, designated here as Orion-Lepus 70(OL 70), is a standard diffuse interstellar cloud: it is subject to theambient galactic radiation field, with properties consistent with Tabout equal to 100 K and n about equal to 3/cu cm. Combined with acolumn density log N(H) = 19.8-20.0/sq cm, these values imply a cloudthickness of about 7 pc. The kinematics of OL 70 are consistent witheither an origin as part of the expanding Loop I superbubble shell, oras part of Lindbald's expanding ring, or a synthesis of the two models.The negative velocity interstellar components seen in stars at d notless than 200 pc are caused by interstellar matter accelerated by theexpanding Ori-Eri superbubble. Relatively dense interstellar gas atpositive LSR velocities is also found within the Orion association, sothat it is difficult to pick out OL 70 components in the spectra of thedistant stars.
|Walraven photometry of nearby southern OB associations|
Homogeneous Walraven (VBLUW) photometry is presented for 5260 stars inthe regions of five nearby southern OB associations: Scorpio Centaurus(Sco OB2), Orion OB1, Canis Major OB1, Monoceros OB1, and Scutum OB2.Derived V and (B - V) in the Johnson system are included.
|Highly ionized species and circumstellar shells in B8-A1 stars|
The nature of the C IV and Si IV absorption seen in the spectra ofapparently normal late-type B and early-type A stars located within 200pc of the sun was investigated by examining a total of 93 archival IUEspectra of 41 stars. In three of these objects, variable or asymmetric CIV profiles indicate that the absorption features have a stellar origin.One star, HD 119921, showed shortward-shifted discrete C IV and Si IVabsorption components similar to those observed in Be stars. All of thestars with detected C IV in their spectra had large values of v sin i.Four of the stars showing C IV and Si IV also showed sharp absorptionfeatures in Si II, with two of these stars displaying variable Si IIfeatures. These results strongly suggest that these stars areunidentified Be/Ae and shell stars.
|Interstellar extinction curves originated in single clouds|
This paper reports great differences between extinction curves derivedfrom spectra of bright nearby stars, likely to be obscured by onlysingle clouds. The differences concern the shapes of the curves as wellas the total-to-selective ratios which, in some cases, reach the valueof about 15. The changes of extinction laws coincide with those ofintensity ratios of two prominent diffuse bands at 578 nm and 579.7 nm.It is concluded that physical (optical) parameters of singleinterstellar clouds differ seriously; interstellar absorption featuresobserved in the spectra of heavily reddened stars are usuallyill-defined averages over many different clouds. The lack of reasonableidentification of structural details of interstellar grains follows thisfact. The derived individual extinction curves are proposed forcomparison with theoretical or laboratory results.
|Carbon and nitrogen in B2 to A2 main-sequence stars|
Carbon abundances are derived from the C II resonance doublet at 1335 Ain 108 main-sequence stars between 9000 and 21000 K from IUE archivaldata. Only alpha Leo and psi sq 2 Aqr are strongly carbon deficient(factors 14 and 50, resp.). The N I lines at 1493 and 1495 A weremeasured in 28 sharp-lined stars below 16500 K. Nitrogen anomalies arefound in 5 stars, but seem uncorrelated to the C abundances. Fourmechanisms for the depletion of carbon are discussed, but none issatisfactory.
|A catalog of ultraviolet interstellar extinction excesses for 1415 stars|
Ultraviolet interstellar extinction excesses are presented for 1415stars with spectral types B7 and earlier. The excesses with respect to Vare derived from Astronomical Netherlands Satellite (ANS) 5-channel UVphotometry at central wavelengths of approximately 1550, 1800, 2500, and3300 A. A measure of the excess extinction in the 2200-A extinction bumpis also given. The data are valuable for investigating the systematicsof peculiar interstellar extinction and for studying the character of UVinterstellar extinction in the general direction of stars for which theextinction-curve shape is unknown.
|Be stars in binaries|
The known companions to 80 Be stars and 355 B stars listed in the BrightStar Catalogue in the range B1-B7 III-V and north of delta = -30 deg areconsidered. The known near-absence of Be binaries with periods less than1/10 yr is confirmed. For longer periods up to the limit of 10,000 AU ofthis survey, the Be and B stars do not differ in binary frequencies.This result implies that during pre-main-sequence contraction, the tidalbraking in binaries wider than 0.5 AU was inadequate to prevent theformation of stars with nearly the break-up rotational velocities. Thefraction of Be and B stars that have companions is higher in clustersand associations (38 percent) than among field stars (25 percent),confirming that escapees from clusters tend to be single stars. There issome evidence that the companions of Be stars that occur in the sameluminosity range tend also to be Be stars; that result was expectedbecause in visual binaries there is a known tendency for rapidlyrotating primaries to have rapidly rotating secondaries.
|Picture gallery - A structured presentation of OAO-2 photometric data supported by OAO-2 spectrophotometric data and UBV, ANS and TD1 observations|
Graphs are presented for the stellar fluxes of 531 stars in the5500-1330 A wavelength range, which have been divided into 52 categorieson the basis of spectral types. The merging of medium band interferencefilter photometry, UBV photometry, ANS photometry and TD1 fluxes, aswell as the ordering of the objects, should prove helpful in studies ofinterstellar reddening, luminosity effects, bandwidth effects, andcomparisons with model stellar atmospheres. The agreement between thevarious UV photometric systems for early-type stars is generally betterthan 0.10 mag. A list of stars whose photometric properties indicatestellar or interstellar anomalies is also provided.
|Ultraviolet photometry from the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory. XXXIV - Filter photometry of 531 stars of diverse types|
Ultraviolet magnitudes for 531 stars observed with the WisconsinExperiment Package on OAO 2 are tabulated. It is noted that these dataconstitute a subset of the OAO 2 data on file at the National SpaceScience Data Center. The tabulation contains previously published dataall reduced to a uniform magnitude system. It is pointed out that theobservations were obtained with the medium band interference filterphotometers. Eleven magnitudes are given designated by their centroidwavelengths.
|Multicolour UBVRI photometry of stars in M 17|
Multicolor UBVRI photometry of stars towards M 17 demonstrate theexistence of a young stellar group with partly heavily obscured O and Bstars in this region. The photometric distance of this cluster is foundto be 2.2 + or - 0.2 kpc. The photometric data can only be interpretedby assuming an abnormal reddening law with R equals 4.2 inside the darkcloud of M 17. The problem of the energy balance of M 17 is discussed bymeans of the observed early type stars.
|Is star formation bimodal ? II. The nearest early-type stars.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1977PASP...89..187E&db_key=AST
|Spectral classification from the ultraviolet line features of S2/68 spectra. II - Late B-type stars|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1977A&AS...30...71C&db_key=AST
|The influence of rotation and stellar winds upon the Be phenomenon|
A number of rapidly rotating B stars, not previously known as Be stars,were observed spectroscopically at H alpha. These results were thencombined with existing data to show that the spectral type of a star andthe minimum velocity at which it must rotate in order to become a Bestar are related. The trend of this relationship is found to have anatural explanation in terms of stellar winds.
|On the continuous energy distributions of peculiar A stars|
Spectrophotometric scans which cover the wavelength region from 3300 to7100 A of 11 magnetic Ap and 11 normal stars are used in connection withpublished energy distributions to examine the similarity of thecontinuous energy distributions of peculiar A and normal main-sequencestars. As observed from the ground, the flux distributions of the Hg-Mnstars empirically match those of the normal stars while those of themagnetic Ap and normal stars match in a gross sense. Many magnetic Apstars are found to possess broad, continuous absorption features whichare most likely produced by bound-free discontinuities of common metals,in particular Si I, neutral iron-peak elements, and the singly ionizedrate earths.
|The helium-to-hydrogen ratio in B stars, as determined from photoelectric observations of a narrow-band index of the He I lambda 4026 line|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1974A&A....36...57N&db_key=AST
|Feasibility of UV astronomy by balloon-borne observations. II. Stellar gradients in the near ultraviolet.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1973A&A....22..371N&db_key=AST
|Feasibility of UV astronomy by balloon-borne observations 1 Stellar spectrophotometry.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1973A&A....22..361N&db_key=AST
|Far-Ultraviolet Interstellar Absorption in Orion and Monoceros|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1971ApJ...166..543W&db_key=AST
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|Proper motion RA:||-12.3|
|Proper motion Dec:||3.6|
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