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The Optical Counterpart to the Peculiar X-Ray Transient XTE J1739-302
The weak X-ray transient XTE J1739-302, characterized by extremely shortoutbursts, has recently been identified with a reddened star. Here wepresent spectroscopy and photometry of the counterpart, identifying itas a O8 Iab(f) supergiant at a distance of ~2.3 kpc. XTE J1739-302 thusbecomes the prototype of the new class of supergiant fast X-raytransients (SFXTs). The optical and infrared spectra of the counterpartto XTE J1739-302 do not reveal any obvious characteristics setting itapart from other X-ray binaries with supergiant companions, whichdisplay a very different type of X-ray light curve.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile (ESO 73.D-0081).

To see or not to see a bow shock. Identifying bow shocks with Hα allsky surveys
OB-stars have the highest luminosities and strongest stellar winds ofall stars, which enables them to interact strongly with theirsurrounding ISM, thus creating bow shocks. These offer us an idealopportunity to learn more about the ISM. They were first detected andanalysed around runaway OB-stars using the IRAS allsky survey by vanBuren et al. (1995, AJ, 110, 2614). Using the geometry of such bowshocks information concerning the ISM density and its fluctuations canbe gained from such infrared observations. As to help to improve the bowshock models, additional observations at other wavelengths, e.g.Hα, are most welcome. However due to their low velocity these bowshocks have a size of ˜ 1°, and could only be observed as awhole with great difficulties. In the light of the new Hα allskysurveys (SHASSA/VTSS) this is no problem any more. We developeddifferent methods to detect bow shocks, e.g. the improved determinationof their symmetry axis with radial distance profiles. Using twoHα-allsky surveys (SHASSA/VTSS), we searched for bow shocks andcompared the different methods. From our sample we conclude, that thecorrelation between the direction of both proper motion and the symmetryaxis determined with radial distance profile is the most promisingdetection method. We found eight bow shocks around HD17505, HD 24430, HD48099, HD 57061, HD92206, HD 135240, HD149757, and HD 158186 from 37 candidatestaken from van Buren et al. (1995, AJ, 110, 2614). Additionally to thetraditional determination of ISM parameters using the standoff distanceof the bow shock, another approach was chosen, using the thickness ofthe bow-shock layer. Both methods lead to the same results, yieldingdensities (˜ 1 cm-3) and the maximal temperatures (˜104 K), that fit well to the up-to-date picture of the WarmIonised Medium.

The origin of massive O-type field stars: II. Field O stars as runaways
In two papers we try to confirm that all Galactic high-mass stars areformed in a cluster environment, by excluding that O-type stars found inthe Galactic field actually formed there. In de Wit et al. (2004) wepresented deep K-band imaging of 5 arcmin fields centred on 43 massiveO-type field stars that revealed that the large majority of theseobjects are single objects. In this contribution we explore thepossibility that the field O stars are dynamically ejected from youngclusters, by investigating their peculiar space velocity distribution,their distance from the Galactic plane, and their spatial vicinity toknown young stellar clusters. We (re-)identify 22 field O-type stars ascandidate runaway OB-stars. The statistics show that 4 ± 2% ofall O-type stars with V<8m can be considered as formedoutside a cluster environment. Most are spectroscopically singleobjects, some are visual binaries. The derived percentage for O-typestars that form isolated in the field based on our statistical analysesis in agreement with what is expected from calculations adopting auniversal cluster richness distribution with power index of β= 1.7,assuming that the cluster richness distribution is continuous down tothe smallest clusters containing one single star.

A Galactic O Star Catalog
We have produced a catalog of 378 Galactic O stars with accuratespectral classifications that is complete for V<8 but includes manyfainter stars. The catalog provides cross-identifications with othersources; coordinates (obtained in most cases from Tycho-2 data);astrometric distances for 24 of the nearest stars; optical (Tycho-2,Johnson, and Strömgren) and NIR photometry; group membership,runaway character, and multiplicity information; and a Web-based versionwith links to on-line services.

Reanalysis of Copernicus Measurements of Interstellar Carbon Monoxide
We used archival data acquired with Copernicus to reexamine CO columndensities, as self-consistent oscillator strengths are now available.Our focus is on lines of sight containing modest amounts of molecularspecies. Our resulting column densities are small enough thatself-shielding from photodissociation does not occur in the cloudsprobed by the observations. While our sample shows that the columndensities of CO and H2 are related, no correspondence withthe CH column density is evident. The case for the CH+ columndensity is less clear. Recent chemical models for these sight linessuggest that CH is mainly a by-product of CH+ synthesis inlow-density gas. The models are most successful in reproducing theamounts of CO in the densest sight lines. Thus, much of the COabsorption must arise from denser clumps along the line of sight toaccount for the trend with H2.

On the Hipparcos parallaxes of O stars
We compare the absolute visual magnitude of the majority of bright Ostars in the sky as predicted from their spectral type with the absolutemagnitude calculated from their apparent magnitude and the Hipparcosparallax. We find that many stars appear to be much fainter thanexpected, up to five magnitudes. We find no evidence for a correlationbetween magnitude differences and the stellar rotational velocity assuggested for OB stars by Lamers et al. (1997, A&A, 325, L25), whosesmall sample of stars is partly included in ours. Instead, by means of asimulation we show how these differences arise naturally from the largedistances at which O stars are located, and the level of precision ofthe parallax measurements achieved by Hipparcos. Straightforwardlyderiving a distance from the Hipparcos parallax yields reliable resultsfor one or two O stars only. We discuss several types of bias reportedin the literature in connection with parallax samples (Lutz-Kelker,Malmquist) and investigate how they affect the O star sample. Inaddition, we test three absolute magnitude calibrations from theliterature (Schmidt-Kaler et al. 1982, Landolt-Börnstein; Howarth& Prinja 1989, ApJS, 69, 527; Vacca et al. 1996, ApJ, 460, 914) andfind that they are consistent with the Hipparcos measurements. AlthoughO stars conform nicely to the simulation, we notice that some B stars inthe sample of \citeauthor{La97} have a magnitude difference larger thanexpected.

The origin of massive O-type field stars. I. A search for clusters
We present a study aimed at clarifying the birthplace for 43 massiveO-type field stars. In this first paper we present the observationalpart: a search for stellar clusters near the target stars. We derivestellar density maps at two different resolving scales, viz. ˜0.25pc and ˜1.0 pc from NTT and TNG imaging and the 2MASS catalogue.These scales are typical for cluster sizes. The main result is that thelarge majority of the O-type field population are isolated stars: only12% (5 out of 43) of the O-type field stars is found to harbour asmall-scale stellar cluster. We review the literature and aim atcharacterizing the stellar field of each O-type field star with theemphasis on star formation and the presence of known young stellarclusters. An analysis of the result of this paper and a discussion ofthe O-type field population as products of a dynamical ejection event ispresented in an accompanying paper.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory,Chile, and at the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated onthe island of La Palma by the Centro Galileo Galilei of the CNAA(Consorzio Nazionale per l'Astronomia e l'Astrofisica) at the SpanishObservatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisicade Canarias.Table 2 and Figs. 4 to 17 are available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Nonthermal Chemistry in Diffuse Clouds with Low Molecular Abundances
High-quality archival spectra of interstellar absorption from C I towardnine stars, taken with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph on theHubble Space Telescope, were analyzed. Our sample was supplemented bytwo sight lines, 23 Ori and β1 Sco, for which the C Imeasurements of Federman, Welty, & Cardelli were used. Directionswith known CH+ absorption, but only upper limits onabsorption from C2 and CN, were considered for our study.This restriction allows us to focus on regions where CH+chemistry dominates the production of carbon-bearing molecules. Profilesynthesis of several multiplets yielded column densities and Dopplerparameters for the C I fine-structure levels. Equilibrium excitationanalyses, using the measured column densities as well as the temperaturefrom H2 excitation, led to values for gas density. Thesedensities, in conjunction with measurements of CH, CH+,C2, and CN column densities, provided estimates for theamount of CH associated with CH+ production, which in turnset up constraints on the present theories for CH+ formationin this environment. We found for our sample of interstellar clouds thaton average 30%-40% of the CH originates from CH+ chemistry,and in some cases it can be as high as 90%. A simple chemical model forgas containing nonequilibrium production of CH+ was developedfor the purpose of predicting column densities for CH, CO,HCO+, CH+2, andCH+3 generated from large abundances ofCH+. Again, our results suggest that nonthermal chemistry isnecessary to account for the observed abundance of CH and probably thatof CO in these clouds.Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescopethrough the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555.

The total-to-selective extinction ratio determined from near IR photometry of OB stars
The paper presents an extensive list of the total to selectiveextinction ratios R calculated from the infrared magnitudes of 597 O andB stars using the extrapolation method. The IR magnitudes of these starswere taken from the literature. The IR colour excesses are determinedwith the aid of "artificial standards" - Wegner (1994). The individualand mean values of total to selective extinction ratios R differ in mostcases from the average value R=3.10 +/-0.05 - Wegner (1993) in differentOB associations. The relation between total to selective extinctionratios R determined in this paper and those calculated using the "methodof variable extinction" and the Cardelli et al. (1989) formulae isdiscussed. The R values presented in this paper can be used to determineindividual absolute magnitudes of reddened OB stars with knowntrigonometric parallaxes.

New periodic variables from the Hipparcos epoch photometry
Two selection statistics are used to extract new candidate periodicvariables from the epoch photometry of the Hipparcos catalogue. Theprimary selection criterion is a signal-to-noise ratio. The dependenceof this statistic on the number of observations is calibrated usingabout 30000 randomly permuted Hipparcos data sets. A significance levelof 0.1 per cent is used to extract a first batch of candidate variables.The second criterion requires that the optimal frequency be unaffectedif the data are de-trended by low-order polynomials. We find 2675 newcandidate periodic variables, of which the majority (2082) are from theHipparcos`unsolved' variables. Potential problems with theinterpretation of the data (e.g. aliasing) are discussed.

Binary systems with post-T Tauri secondaries
The identification of post-T Tauri (pTT) stars selected throughspectroscopic criteria by Pallavicini et al. (\cite{Pallavicini92}) andby Martín et al. (1992) among the candidates belonging to visualbinary systems is revisited in the present paper by studying theirposition in the HR diagram. These stars belong to the so-called Lindroosbinary sample (Lindroos \cite{Lindroos85}), i.e. to systems withearly-type primaries and late-type companions. If these binaries arephysical and not simply optical pairs, similar ages must be found forthe early-type primary and the late-type component of each system. Theages of these systems have been derived by Lindroos in 1986, by usingcalibrations of the uvbyβ indices. In this paper, we revisit theseages through the position of these stars among new evolutionary tracksin the HR diagram for pre- and post-main sequence stars. We derive newestimations of the ages of each system component, as well as theirmasses, using parallaxes of the early-type component derived fromHipparcos data and by forcing the late-type companion to be at the samedistance. Teff and log g of the early-type components havebeen computed using the calibrations of two independent photometricsystems: the uvbyβ photometry and the Geneva system. TheTeff of the late-type stars have been determined by usingvarious calibrations of several photometric systems: uvbyβ, UBV andVRI, in order to determine the uncertainties and systematic errors onthese parameters and consequently on the ages. Differences in the agesand masses obtained by using various sources of recent evolutionarymodels are considered and discussed. The consistency of the age of thelate type component with that of its early type primary is examined; thevalidity of this criterion for a selection of physical pairs isdiscussed. The accuracy of the observational and theoretical data arenot sufficient to assign stringent values to the age for several of theexamined systems. Nevertheless, in spite of the large error bars, wehave established that we could select a number of systems which,according to their position in the HR diagram, may be physicallyassociated. The selection of possible physically bounded systemsobtained with the present approach and that made by Pallavicini et al.(\cite{Pallavicini92}) or Martín et al. (1992) on the basis ofspectroscopic criteria are not always coincident. Spectroscopiccriteria, for example the presence of a strong Li feature, are morestringent conditions than that of coherent ages of primaries andsecondaries; however the Li I 6708 doublet is expected to fade in thelatest stages of the pre-main sequence life of a star, so that the``oldest" pTTs may not be detected by spectroscopy only. The differentresults so obtained are discussed for each system and we conclude thatthe present approach may be used as a powerful criterion to select newpTT candidates in visual binaries to be observed and analyzed with highresolution spectrographs and to select candidates that have almostreached the main sequence. Partly based on data from the ESA Hipparcosastrometric satellite. Tables 2, 5, 7 and 9 are only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/379/162

Multicomponent radiatively driven stellar winds. II. Gayley-Owocki heating in multitemperature winds of OB stars
We show that the so-called Gayley-Owocki (Doppler) heating is importantfor the temperature structure of the wind of main sequence stars coolerthan the spectral type O6. The formula for Gayley-Owocki heating isderived directly from the Boltzmann equation as a direct consequence ofthe dependence of the driving force on the velocity gradient. SinceGayley-Owocki heating deposits heat directly on the absorbing ions, wealso investigated the possibility that individual components of theradiatively driven stellar wind have different temperatures. This effectis negligible in the wind of O stars, whereas a significant temperaturedifference takes place in the winds of main sequence B stars for starscooler than B2. Typical temperature differences between absorbing ionsand other flow components for such stars is of the order 103K. However, in the case when the passive component falls back onto thestar, the absorbing component reaches temperatures of order106 K, which allows for emission of X-rays. Moreover, wecompare our computed terminal velocities with the observed ones. Wefound quite good agreement between predicted and observed terminalvelocities. The systematic difference coming from the using of the socalled ``cooking formula'' has been removed.

Mass loss rate determination of southern OB stars
A sample of OB stars (eleven Of, one O and one B supergiant) has beensurveyed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array at 4.8 and 8.64 GHzwith a resolution of ~ 2 arcsec-4 arcsec. Five stars were detected;three of them have negative spectral indices, consistent withnon-thermal emission, and two have positive indices. The thermalradiation from HD 150135 and HD 163181 can be explained as coming froman optically thick ionized stellar wind. The non-thermal radiation fromCD-47deg 4551, HD 124314 and HD 150136 possibly comes fromstrong shocks in the wind itself and/or in the wind colliding region ifthe stars have a massive early-type companion. The percentage ofnon-thermal emitters among detected O stars has increased up to ~ 50%.The Of star HD 124314 clearly shows flux density variations. Mass lossrates (or upper limits) were derived for all the observed stars and theresults compared with non-radio measurements and theoreticalpredictions.

A Search for Interstellar Bubbles surrounding Massive Stars in Perseus OB1
We have examined the interstellar medium in the vicinity of massivestars belonging to the Per OB1 association based on neutral hydrogen 21cm observations obtained with the 100 m radio telescope at Effelsberg(HPBW=8.4′) and complementary data from the Leiden-Dwingeloo H ISurvey (HPBW=36'). The higher angular resolution H I observationsallowed us to discover probable wind-blown bubbles related to fourmassive stars in the association, namely, HD 14442 [O5n(f)p], HD 14947[O5If+], HD 13022 [O9.5II-III((n))], and HD 13338 [O9.5V], while thedetection of a wind-blown bubble associated with HD 16691 [O5If+] isless conclusive. A clear H I shell coincident in position with two B1IIIstars (HD 15233 and Hilt 311) was also detected. Some of these featuresalso have infrared and/or molecular counterparts. The energetics of thestructures related to each massive star is analyzed. The new H Iinterstellar bubbles appear to be similar to the ones found surroundingWolf-Rayet stars and other Of stars. The large-scale maps obtained usingthe lower angular resolution H I data show that most of the early-typestars belonging to Per OB1 are placed in a region of low H I emission.The association could have blown a H I shell of about 350×550 pcin size. This large H I shell has an infrared counterpart.

X-ray emission from Lindroos binary systems
We present a study of the X-ray emission from binary systems extractedfrom the Lindroos catalogue (Lindroos 1986) based on the ROSAT All-Skysurvey as well as ROSAT PSPC and HRI pointings. The studied sampleconsists of visual binary systems comprised of early-type primaries andlate-type secondaries. The ages of the systems were determined byLindroos (1985) from uvbybeta photometry of the primaries. These agesrange between 33 and 135 Myr, so if the late-type secondaries arephysically bound to the early-type primaries, they could be Post-T Tauristars (PTTS). We have found strong X-ray emission from severalsecondaries. This fact together with their optical and IR data, makethem bona fide PTTS candidates. We have also detected X-ray emissionfrom several early-type primaries and, in particular, from most of thelate-B type stars. Because their HRI hardness ratios are similar tothose from resolved late-type stars, the presence of an unresolvedlate-type companion seems to be the cause of this emission.

Five-colour photometry of OB-stars in the Southern Hemisphere
Observations of OB-stars, made in 1959 and 1960 at the Leiden SouthernStation near Hartebeespoortdam, South Africa, with the VBLUW photometerattached to the 90 cm light-collector, are given in this paper. They arecompared with photometry obtained by \cite[Graham (1968),]{gra68}\cite[Walraven & Walraven (1977),]{wal77} \cite[Lub & Pel(1977)]{lub77} and \cite[Van Genderen et al. (1984).]{gen84} Formulaefor the transformation of the present observations to those of\cite[Walraven & Walraven (1977)]{wal77} and \cite[Lub & Pel(1977)]{lub77} are given. Table 4 is only available in electronic format the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

The Interstellar Medium in the Environs of O-Type Stars
We analyze the distribution of the neutral gas in the neighborhood offour southern O-type stars based on observations of the 21 cm H i line.These data disclose H i bubbles probably associated with the stars HD112244 [O8.5Iab(f)], HD 155913 [O5Vn((f))], HD 175754 [O8II((f))], andHD 175876 [O6.5III(n)(f)]. The dimensions of these bubbles are in therange 90 to 170 pc, and their expansion velocities are low, about 10 kms^-1, implying dynamical ages of (3-6) x 10^6 yr. Only a few percent ofthe mechanical energy of the stellar wind is transformed into kineticenergy of the shells. Their origin and the contribution of otherearly-type stars to the formation of these bubbles are discussed.Particularly, it is suggested that HD 155913 belongs to an unknown OBassociation that could also have contributed in the formation of the H ibubble surrounding this star. These new H i bubbles resemble H i bubblessurrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars. The presence of stellar wind bubblesassociated with O-type stars supports an interpretation where themassive progenitors of the W-R stars are also responsible for theformation of the H i bubbles detected around W-R stars.

ICCD speckle observations of binary stars. XIX - an astrometric/spectroscopic survey of O stars
We present the results of a speckle interferometric survey made with theCHARA speckle camera and 4 m class telescopes of Galactic O-type starswith V less than 8. We can detect with the speckle camera binaries inthe angular separation range 0.035-1.5 arcsec with delta M less than 3,and we have discovered 15 binaries among 227 O-type systems. We combinedour results on visual binaries with measurements of wider pairs from theWashington Double Star Catalog and fainter pairs from the HipparcosCatalog, and we made a literature survey of the spectroscopic binariesamong the sample. We then investigated the overall binary frequency ofthe sample and the orbital characteristics of the known binaries.Binaries are common among O stars in clusters and associations but lessso among field and especially runaway stars. There are many triplesystems among the speckle binaries, and we discuss their possible rolein the ejection of stars from clusters. The period distribution of thebinaries is bimodal in log P, but we suggest that binaries with periodsof years and decades may eventually be found to fill the gap. The massratio distribution of the visual binaries increases toward lower massratios, but low mass ratio companions are rare among close,spectroscopic binaries. We present distributions of the eccentricity andlongitude of periastron for spectroscopic binaries with ellipticalorbits, and we find strong evidence of a bias in the longitude ofperiastron distribution.

Wolf-Rayet stars and O-star runaways with HIPPARCOS. II. Photometry
Abundant {HIPPARCOS photometry over 3 years of 141 O and Wolf-Rayetstars, including 8 massive X-ray binaries, provides a magnificentvariety of light curves at the sigma ~ 1-5% level. Among the mostinteresting results, we mention: optical outbursts in HD 102567 (MXRB),coinciding with periastron passages; drastic changes in the light curveshape of HD 153919 (MXRB); previously unknown long-term variability ofHD 39680 (O6V:[n]pe var) and WR 46 (WN3p); unusual flaring of HDE 308399(O9V); ellipsoidal variations of HD 64315, HD 115071 and HD 160641;rotationally modulated variations in HD 66811=zeta Pup (O4Inf) and HD210839=lambda Cep (O6I(n)fp); dust formation episode in WR 121 (WC9). Ina statistical sense, the incidence of variability is slightly higheramong the WR stars, which might be explained by the higher percentage ofknown binary systems. Among the presumably single WR stars, thecandidate runaways appear to be more variable then the rest. Based ondata from the ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite

Wolf-Rayet stars and O-star runaways with HIPPARCOS. I. Kinematics
Reliable systemic radial velocities are almost impossible to secure forWolf-Rayet stars, difficult for O stars. Therefore, to study the motions- both systematic in the Galaxy and peculiar - of these two relatedtypes of hot, luminous star, we have examined the Hipparcos propermotions of some 70 stars of each type. We find that (a) both groupsfollow Galactic rotation in the same way, (b) both have a similarfraction of ``runaways'', (c) mean kinetic ages based on displacementand motion away from the Galactic plane tend to slightly favour thecluster ejection over the the binary supernova hypothesis for theirformation, and (d) those with significant peculiar supersonic motionrelative to the ambient ISM, tend to form bow shocks in the direction ofthe motion. Based on data from the ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite.Table~1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

The neutron star in the supernova remnant PKS 1209-52
We re-analyzed X-ray data collected with the ROSAT and ASCAobservatories on a candidate neutron star (NS) near the center of thesupernova remnant PKS 1209-52. We fitted the observed spectra with NSatmosphere models. The hydrogen atmosphere fits yield more realisticparameters of the NS and the intervening hydrogen column than thetraditional blackbody fit. In particular, for a NS of mass 1.4 M_sun andradius 10 km, we obtained a NS surface temperature T_eff=(1.4-1.9)x10(6) K and distance d=1.6-3.3 kpc versus T=(4.2-4.6)x 10(6) K andimplausibly large d=11-13 kpc for the blackbody fit, at a 90% confidencelevel. Our fits suggest that the surface magnetic field is either veryweak, Braisebox {-.6ex 10(10) G, or it exceeds =~ 2x 10(12) G. Thehydrogen column density inferred from the atmosphere fits, n_H=(0.7-2.2)x 10(21) cm(-2) , agrees fairly well with independent estimatesobtained from UV observations of nearby stars, radio data, and X-rayspectrum of the shell of the supernova remnant, whereas the blackbodyand power-law fits give considerably lower and greater values,n_H=(0.2-0.4)x 10(21) and (5.2-7.0)x 10(21) cm(-2) , respectively. TheNS surface temperature inferred from the atmosphere fits is consistentwith standard NS cooling models.

Cross-correlation characteristics of OB stars from IUE spectroscopy
We present a catalogue of homogeneous measures of the linewidthparameter, v_esin i, for 373 O-type stars and early B supergiants(including the separate components of 25 binary and three triplesystems), produced by cross-correlating high-resolution,short-wavelength IUE spectra against a `template' spectrum of tauSco. Wealso tabulate terminal velocities. There are no O supergiants in oursample with v_esin i<65 km s^-1, and only one supergiant earlier thanB5 has v_esin i<50 km s^-1, confirming that an important linebroadening mechanism in addition to rotation must be present in theseobjects. A calibration of the area under the cross-correlation peakagainst spectral type is used to obtain estimates of continuum intensityratios of the components in 28 spectroscopically binary or multiplesystems. At least seven SB2 systems show evidence for the `Struve-Sahadeeffect', a systematic variation in relative line strength as a functionof orbital phase. The stellar wind profiles of the most rapid rotator inour sample, the O9III:n* star HD 191423 (v_esin i=436km s^-1), show itto have a `wind-compressed disc' similar to that of HD 93521; this starand other rapid rotators are good candidates for studies of non-radialpulsation.

High-Resolution Ultraviolet Observations of the Highly Ionized Interstellar Gas toward Radio Loops I and IV
We present new Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) echelleobservations of the high ionization lines of Si IV, C IV, and N V towardHD 119608, a halo star at d = 4.1 kpc behind the Loop I and IV supernovaremnants. Absorption along the path to HD 119608 makes it possible tostudy energetic processes that may result in the flow of gas into theGalactic halo. The data have a resolution (FWHM) of ~3.5 km s-1 and S/Nratios of 30:1--50:1. The integrated high ion column densities log N =13.57 +/- 0.02, 14.48 +/- 0.06, and 13.45 +/- 0.07 for Si IV, C IV, andN V, respectively, imply a factor of 2--4 enhancement in the amount ofhighly ionized gas compared to average sight lines through the Galacticdisk and halo. The integrated high ion column density ratios, N(CIV)/N(Si IV) = 8.1 +/- 1.1 and N(C IV)/N(N V) = 10.7 +/- 2.1, are alsoseveral times larger than normal. These high ion results suggest theabsorption is influenced by passage of the sight line through the centerof Loop IV. The HD 119608 C IV absorption profile has a bimodal velocitystructure indicative of an expanding shell; we tentatively derive anexpansion velocity of 16 km s-1 for Radio Loop IV. A detailed analysisof the high ion profile structure indicates that multiple types ofhighly ionized gas with a range of properties exist along this sightline. We also reexamine the high ionization properties of the QSO 3C 273sight line using new intermediate-resolution (FWHM ~ 20 km s-1) GHRSdata. We obtain log N = 14.49 +/- 0.03 and 13.87 +/- 0.06 for C IV and NV, respectively. The C IV column density, which is 0.12 dex smaller thanearlier estimates, leads to somewhat smaller ionic ratios thanpreviously determined. We find N(C IV)/N(Si IV) = 5.1 +/- 0.6 and N(CIV)/N(N V) = 4.2 +/- 0.6. However, as for HD 119608, the high ion columndensities toward 3C 273 are larger than normal by factors of 2--4. The3C 273 high ion absorption profiles are much broader than those seentoward HD 119608 and other sight lines near the center of Loop IV. Thelarger line widths may result because the sight line passes through theturbulent edge of Loop IV as well as the X-ray and radio continuumemission regions of the North Polar Spur. We have compiled a list of thehighest quality IUE and GHRS high ion measurements available forinterstellar sight lines through the disk and halo and find thefollowing median averaged results: N(C IV)/N(Si IV) = 3.8 +/- 1.9 andN(C IV)/N(N V) = 4.0 +/- 2.4. These ratios are lower than those foundfor four Loop IV sight lines. We suggest a model for the production ofhighly ionized gas in Loop IV in which the contributions from turbulentmixing layers and conductive interfaces/SNR bubbles to the total highion column densities are approximately equal. Much of the high ionabsorption toward HD 119608 and 3C 273 may occur within a highlyfragmented medium within the remnant or the outer cavity walls of theremnant.

Absorption by Highly Ionized Interstellar Gas Along Extragalactic and Galactic Sight Lines
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....113.2158S&db_key=AST

Bow Shocks Around Runaway Stars.III.The High Resolution Maps
In a recent survey for bow shock structures around OB runaway starsusing the ISSA/IRAS archival data and excess maps at 60 \mum, 58candidates were found. These objects are surrounded by extended infraredemission at 60 \mum, characteristic of warm dust heated by ultravioletphotons, a signature of wind bow shocks. High resolution IRAS (HiRes)images have been produced for these 58 objects and some of thosespatially resolved are presented in this study. The images were used todistinguish between multiple confused IR sources, possible artifacts andunambiguous bow shocks, as the sources of the extended 60 \mum emission.Six new bow shocks have been identified using this method, and threehave been rejected. Twenty two of the targets, however, remain spatiallyunresolved even at the nominal HiRes resolution of ~ 1arcmin . For thelarger and better defined bow shocks some internal substructure isdiscernible. The length of these features suggest that they arise as theresult of a subtle dynamical instability. It can not be ruled out,however, that some of the bow shock morphology could be imprinted by thesurrounding medium.

A Spectral Atlas of Hot, Luminous Stars at 2 Microns
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996ApJS..107..281H&db_key=AST

Coronal Gas in the Halo. II. ORFEUS Observations of Galactic Halo Stars
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996ApJ...465..296H&db_key=AST

Projected Rotational Velocities of O-Type Stars
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996ApJ...463..737P&db_key=AST

Highly Ionized Interstellar Atoms--Heated, Cooled, or Mixed?
Recent observations with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph on theHubble Space Telescope, combined with Copernicus results, make possiblea comparison between C+3 and O+5 interstellar column densities in boththe halo and the disk of our Galaxy. The ratio N(C+3)/N(O+5) for sixlines of sight in the disk is about an order of magnitude less than forfive corresponding values in the halo. In the disk, the values of thisratio are in good general agreement with a variety of different modelsfor conductive heating at an interface between hot and cool gas. As aworking hypothesis we assume that this process is the dominant one forproducing the observed highly ionized species in the disk. The muchlarger ratios for the halo lie between the ranges predicted by twodifferent idealized models---radiative cooling of hot infalling gas andturbulent mixing of hot gas with the cool clouds past which it flows.Since both these processes should occur when hot gas flows past H Iclouds in the halo, we assume tentatively that these two processes maybe jointly responsible for much of the observed high ionization of haloatoms.

The Winds of Hot Stars in External Galaxies. III. HST UV Spectroscopy of O and B Supergiants in M31 and M33
HST Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) UV (1200-3300 A) spectra of ninelate-O and early-B supergiants in M31, and one B1.5 supergiant in M33,are presented. The morphologies of the UV line spectra are discussed andcompared with those of Galactic and Magellanic Cloud stars of similaroptical spectral type. The UV spectral signatures of the M31 and M33supergiants are similar to the comparison stars, in general, with somedifferences due to metallicity effects. Chemical peculiarities are seenin three M31 supergiants. The strength of the P Cygni profiles in thewind lines indicates abundances similar to the LMC in M33, and similarto our Galaxy in M31. Wind velocities in M31 supergiants are comparableto Galactic values. Narrow absorption components at high velocity areseen in the wind of the M33 supergiant, revealing clumpiness in thewind.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:12h55m57.00s
Apparent magnitude:5.32
Distance:578.035 parsecs
Proper motion RA:-5.1
Proper motion Dec:-0.3
B-T magnitude:5.343
V-T magnitude:5.366

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
HD 1989HD 112244
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 8656-3196-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0300-17010751
BSC 1991HR 4908
HIPHIP 63117

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