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Gas and stellar dynamics in NGC 1068: probing the galactic gravitational potential
We present SAURON integral field spectrography of the central 1.5 kpc ofthe nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068, encompassing the well-knownnear-infrared (NIR) inner bar observed in the K band. We havesuccessively disentangled the respective contributions of the ionizedgas and stars, thus deriving their two-dimensional distribution andkinematics. The [OIII] and Hβ emission lines exhibit a verydifferent spatial distribution and kinematics, the latter followinginner spiral arms with clumps associated with star formation. Stronginward streaming motions are observed in both the Hβ and [OIII]kinematics. The stellar kinematics also exhibit clear signatures of anon-axisymmetric tumbling potential, with a twist in both the velocityand Gauss-Hermite h3 fields. We re-examined the long-slitdata of Shapiro, Gerssen & van der Marel using a pPXF: a strongdecoupling of the Gauss-Hermite term h3 is revealed, and thecentral decrease of Gauss-Hermite term h4 hinted in theSAURON data is confirmed. These data also suggest that NGC 1068 is agood candidate for a so-called σ drop. We confirm the possiblepresence of two separate pattern speeds applying the Tremaine-Weinbergmethod to the Fabry-Perot Hα map. We also examine the stellarkinematics of bars formed in N-body+smoothed particle hydrodynamics(SPH) simulations built from axisymmetric initial conditionsapproximating the luminosity distribution of NGC 1068. The resultingvelocity, dispersion and higher order Gauss-Hermite moments successfullyreproduce a number of properties observed in the two-dimensionalkinematics of NGC 1068 and the long-slit data, showing that thekinematic signature of the NIR bar is imprinted in the stellarkinematics. The remaining differences between the models and theobserved properties are likely mostly due to the exclusion of starformation and the lack of the primary large-scale oval/bar in thesimulations. These models nevertheless suggest that the inner bar coulddrive a significant amount of gas down to a scale of ~ 300 pc. Thiswould be consistent with the interpretation of the σ drop in NGC1068 being the result of central gas accretion followed by an episode ofstar formation.

Precise radial velocities of giant stars. I. Stable stars
Context: .Future astrometric missions such as SIM PlanetQuest need verystable reference stars. K giants have large luminosities, which placethem at large distances and thus the jitter of their photocenters bycompanions is relatively small. Therefore K giants would be best suitedas references. To confirm this observationally a radial velocity surveyis performed to quantify the level of intrinsic variability in Kgiants. Aims: .From this radial velocity survey we present 34 Kgiants with an observed standard deviation of the radial velocity ofless than 20 m/s. These stars are considered "stable" and can be used asradial velocity standards. Methods: .The radial velocity surveycontains 179 K giants. All K giants have a declination between -30°and +65° and visual magnitude of 3{-}6 mag. The CoudéAuxiliary Telescope (CAT) at UCO/Lick Observatory is used to obtainradial velocities with an accuracy of 5{-}8 m/s. The number of epochsfor the 34 stable stars ranges from 11 to 28 with a total timespan ofthe observations between 1800 and a little over 2200 days. Results: .The observational results of the 34 "stable" stars are showntogether with a discussion about their position in the MV vs.B-V diagram and some conclusions concerning the radial velocityvariability of K giants. These results are in agreement with thetheoretical predictions. K giants in a certain range of theMV vs. B-V diagram are suitable reference stars.

The Fan Observatory Bench Optical Spectrograph (FOBOS)
The Fan Observatory Bench Optical Spectrograph (FOBOS) is intended forsingle-object optical spectroscopy at moderate resolution (R~1500-3000)using a fiber-fed, bench-mounted design to maintain stability. Wheneverpossible, the instrument uses off-the-shelf components to maintain amodest cost. FOBOS supports Galactic astronomy projects that requireconsistently well-measured (~5 km s-1) radial velocities forlarge numbers of broadly distributed and relatively bright (V<~14)stars. The spectrograph provides wavelength coverage throughout theoptical spectrum, although the instrument design was optimized for usein the range 4700 Å<λ<6700 Å. Test dataindicate that the instrument is stable and capable of measuring radialvelocities with precision better than 3 km s-1 at aresolution of R~1500 with minimal calibration overhead.

Elemental Abundance Ratios in Stars of the Outer Galactic Disk. I. Open Clusters
We summarize radial velocity studies of selected stars in the old,distant clusters Berkeley 20, Berkeley 21, NGC 2141, Berkeley 29, andBerkeley 31. Cluster members are identified using optical and infraredcolor-magnitude diagrams, as well as radial velocities derived fromhigh-resolution echelle spectra. Three members of M67 were observedsimilarly, and those velocities compare extremely well with priormeasures. Mean cluster radial velocities are determined. We also employthe highest quality spectra to analyze the chemical compositions of allsix clusters for [Fe/H], as well as abundances of α-elements,iron-peak elements, and those synthesized in either the s-process or ther-process. In Be 21 our observed star is found to be rotating rapidlyand overabundant in lithium, the second Li-rich star found in thissparse cluster.We confirm the lack of correlation between abundance and age. For theouter disk, the abundance gradient for [Fe/H] deviates from the trenddefined near the solar neighborhood. Rather than declining withincreasing galactocentric distance, [Fe/H] appears to reach a``basement'' at [Fe/H]~-0.5 beyond RGC~10-12 kpc. Our radialabundance distribution for [Fe/H] is not inconsistent with the radialabundance discontinuity exhibited by Cepheids. We find enhanced [O/Fe],[α/Fe], and [Eu/Fe] in the outer disk, revealing a rapid starformation history. The outer disk also exhibits enhancements fors-process elements. We compare the open cluster compositions with thoseof the thin disk, thick disk, halo, bulge, and dwarf spheroidalgalaxies. None of these stellar populations perfectly matches theabundance ratios of the outer disk open clusters. Several key pointsarise from these comparisons: (1) [O/Fe] and [α/Fe] resemble thoseof the thick disk. (2) [Na/Fe] and [Al/Fe] are enhanced relative tothose of the thin disk. (3) [Ni/Fe] and [Mn/Fe] are in accord with thoseof the thin disk, while [Co/Fe] may be slightly enhanced. (4) Theneutron-capture elements indicate different ratios of s-process tor-process material, with no cluster showing a pure r-processdistribution. (5) An unusual pattern exists among the α-elements,with [/Fe] enhanced while [/Fe] is normal.Similar abundance ratios have been reported for Galactic bulge giantsand indicate a common but not necessarily shared nucleosynthetic historybetween the bulge and the outer disk. Enhanced ratios of [Al/Fe] and[Co/Fe] offer another possible similarity between the bulge and theouter disk.An intriguing but tentative conclusion is that the outer disk opencluster abundance ratios are consistent with the outer disk being formedvia a merger event or series of merger events. The basement in [Fe/H]and enhanced [α/Fe] suggest that the outer disk formed from areservoir of gas with a star formation history distinct from the solarneighborhood. That the open clusters may be associated with an accreteddwarf galaxy or galaxies is appealing, since the clusters are young andhave [α/Fe] ratios indicating a rapid star formation history.However, the high [α/Fe] ratios are unlike those seen in anycurrent dwarf galaxies at the same [Fe/H]. Therefore, the open clustersmay have formed as a result of star formation triggered by a mergerevent or series of mergers in the outer disk. The ages of the outer diskopen clusters would then be a measure of when the merger(s) occurred.However, Be 29 is a candidate merger member, while Be 31 is not. Oneproblem with the merger scenario is that open clusters with presumablyvery different origins have similar and unusual compositions.This paper makes use of observations obtained at the National OpticalAstronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association ofUniversities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under contract fromthe National Science Foundation. We also employ data products from theTwo Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University ofMassachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center,California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronauticsand Space Administration and the National Science Foundation.

Chromospherically Active Stars. XXIV. The Giant, Single-lined Binaries HD 37824, HD 181809, and HD 217188
We have obtained spectroscopy and photometry of three chromosphericallyactive, single-lined spectroscopic binaries, HD 37824 (V1149 Ori), HD181809 (V4138 Sgr), and HD 217188 (AZ Psc). HD 37824 has a circularorbit with a period of 53.57 days. Its primary is a K0 III star, whilethe secondary is likely a G or K dwarf. HD 181809 has an orbit with aperiod of 13.04667 days and a low eccentricity of 0.040. The primary hasa spectral type of K0 III-IV, and its secondary is probably an M dwarf.The orbit of HD 217188 has a period of 47.1209 days and a moderatelyhigh eccentricity of 0.470. The spectral type of the primary is K0 III,while the secondary is likely an M dwarf. All three systems areestimated to have near solar iron abundances. Photometric observationsspanning 15-16 years for all three stars yield mean photometric periodsof 53.12, 59.85, and 90.89 days for HD 37824, HD 181809, and HD 217188,respectively. Thus, HD 37824 is rotating synchronously with the orbitalperiod, while HD 181809 and HD 217188 are both rotating considerablyslower than synchronously. All three stars show long-term variations inmean brightness and photometric amplitude, but no correlations areobserved between the seasonal mean brightness, photometric amplitude,and seasonal photometric period in any of the stars. No clear evidencefor long-term periodic variations in any of these parameters is present.The circular orbit of HD 37824 and the synchronous rotation of its Kgiant argue that the star is in the core helium-burning phase of itsevolution. The giant components of HD 181809 and HD 217188 areasynchronous rotators, and both systems have eccentric orbits. Thus,those two stars are likely first-ascent giants.

Local kinematics of K and M giants from CORAVEL/Hipparcos/Tycho-2 data. Revisiting the concept of superclusters
The availability of the Hipparcos Catalogue has triggered many kinematicand dynamical studies of the solar neighbourhood. Nevertheless, thosestudies generally lacked the third component of the space velocities,i.e., the radial velocities. This work presents the kinematic analysisof 5952 K and 739 M giants in the solar neighbourhood which includes forthe first time radial velocity data from a large survey performed withthe CORAVEL spectrovelocimeter. It also uses proper motions from theTycho-2 catalogue, which are expected to be more accurate than theHipparcos ones. An important by-product of this study is the observedfraction of only 5.7% of spectroscopic binaries among M giants ascompared to 13.7% for K giants. After excluding the binaries for whichno center-of-mass velocity could be estimated, 5311 K and 719 M giantsremain in the final sample. The UV-plane constructed from these datafor the stars with precise parallaxes (σπ/π≤20%) reveals a rich small-scale structure, with several clumpscorresponding to the Hercules stream, the Sirius moving group, and theHyades and Pleiades superclusters. A maximum-likelihood method, based ona Bayesian approach, has been applied to the data, in order to make fulluse of all the available stars (not only those with precise parallaxes)and to derive the kinematic properties of these subgroups. Isochrones inthe Hertzsprung-Russell diagram reveal a very wide range of ages forstars belonging to these groups. These groups are most probably relatedto the dynamical perturbation by transient spiral waves (as recentlymodelled by De Simone et al. \cite{Simone2004}) rather than to clusterremnants. A possible explanation for the presence of younggroup/clusters in the same area of the UV-plane is that they have beenput there by the spiral wave associated with their formation, while thekinematics of the older stars of our sample has also been disturbed bythe same wave. The emerging picture is thus one of dynamical streamspervading the solar neighbourhood and travelling in the Galaxy withsimilar space velocities. The term dynamical stream is more appropriatethan the traditional term supercluster since it involves stars ofdifferent ages, not born at the same place nor at the same time. Theposition of those streams in the UV-plane is responsible for the vertexdeviation of 16.2o ± 5.6o for the wholesample. Our study suggests that the vertex deviation for youngerpopulations could have the same dynamical origin. The underlyingvelocity ellipsoid, extracted by the maximum-likelihood method afterremoval of the streams, is not centered on the value commonly acceptedfor the radial antisolar motion: it is centered on < U > =-2.78±1.07 km s-1. However, the full data set(including the various streams) does yield the usual value for theradial solar motion, when properly accounting for the biases inherent tothis kind of analysis (namely, < U > = -10.25±0.15 kms-1). This discrepancy clearly raises the essential questionof how to derive the solar motion in the presence of dynamicalperturbations altering the kinematics of the solar neighbourhood: doesthere exist in the solar neighbourhood a subset of stars having no netradial motion which can be used as a reference against which to measurethe solar motion?Based on observations performed at the Swiss 1m-telescope at OHP,France, and on data from the ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite.Full Table \ref{taba1} is only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/430/165}

Dynamical Mass Constraints on Low-Mass Pre-Main-Sequence Stellar Evolutionary Tracks: An Eclipsing Binary in Orion with a 1.0 Msolar Primary and a 0.7 Msolar Secondary
We report the discovery of a double-lined, spectroscopic, eclipsingbinary in the Orion star-forming region. We analyze the systemspectroscopically and photometrically to empirically determine precise,distance-independent masses, radii, effective temperatures, andluminosities for both components. The measured masses for the primaryand secondary, accurate to ~1%, are 1.01 and 0.73 Msolar,respectively; thus, the primary is a definitive pre-main-sequence solaranalog, and the secondary is the lowest-mass star yet discovered amongpre-main-sequence eclipsing binary systems. We use these fundamentalmeasurements to test the predictions of pre-main-sequence stellarevolutionary tracks. None of the models we examined correctly predictthe masses of the two components simultaneously, and we implicatedifferences between the theoretical and empirical effective temperaturescales for this failing. All of the models predict the observed slope ofthe mass-radius relationship reasonably well, though the observationstend to favor models with low convection efficiencies. Indeed,considering our newly determined mass measurements together with otherdynamical mass measurements of pre-main-sequence stars in theliterature, as well as measurements of Li abundances in these stars, weshow that the data strongly favor evolutionary models with inefficientconvection in the stellar interior, even though such models cannotreproduce the properties of the present-day Sun.Based on data collected with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope and the WIYNTelescope.

Synthetic Lick Indices and Detection of α-enhanced Stars. II. F, G, and K Stars in the -1.0 < [Fe/H] < +0.50 Range
We present an analysis of 402 F, G, and K solar neighborhood stars, withaccurate estimates of [Fe/H] in the range -1.0 to +0.5 dex, aimed at thedetection of α-enhanced stars and at the investigation of theirkinematical properties. The analysis is based on the comparison of 571sets of spectral indices in the Lick/IDS system, coming from fourdifferent observational data sets, with synthetic indices computed withsolar-scaled abundances and with α-element enhancement. We useselected combinations of indices to single out α-enhanced starswithout requiring previous knowledge of their main atmosphericparameters. By applying this approach to the total data set, we obtain alist of 60 bona fide α-enhanced stars and of 146 stars withsolar-scaled abundances. The properties of the detected α-enhancedand solar-scaled abundance stars with respect to their [Fe/H] values andkinematics are presented. A clear kinematic distinction betweensolar-scaled and α-enhanced stars was found, although a one-to-onecorrespondence to ``thin disk'' and ``thick disk'' components cannot besupported with the present data.

Metal Abundances in Extremely Distant Galactic Old Open Clusters. I. Berkeley 29 and Saurer 1
We report on high-resolution spectroscopy of four giant stars in theGalactic old open clusters Berkeley 29 and Saurer 1 obtained with HIRESat the Keck Telescope. These two clusters possess the largestGalactocentric distances yet known for open star clusters and thereforeare crucial objects to probe the chemical pattern and evolution of theoutskirts of the Galactic disk. We find that [Fe/H]=-0.38+/-0.14 and-0.44+/-0.18 for Saurer 1 and Berkeley 29, respectively. On the basis ofthese data, we first revise the fundamental parameters of the clustersand then discuss them in the context of the Galactic disk radialabundance gradients. Both clusters seem to significantly deviate fromthe general trend, suggesting that the outer part of the Galactic diskunderwent a completely different evolution compared with the inner disk.In particular, Berkeley 29 is clearly associated with the Monocerosstream, whereas Saurer 1 exhibits very different properties. Theabundance ratios suggest that the chemical evolution of the outer diskwas dominated by the Galactic halo.The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory,which is operated as a scientific partnership among the CaliforniaInstitute of Technology, the University of California, and the NationalAeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possibleby the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

High-Resolution Spectroscopy of FU Orionis Stars
High-resolution spectroscopy was obtained of the FU orionis stars FU Oriand V1057 Cyg between 1995 and 2002 with the SOFIN spectrograph at theNordic Optical Telescope and with HIRES at Keck I. During these years FUOri remained about 1 mag (in B) below its 1938-39 maximum brightness,but V1057 Cyg (B~10.5 at peak in 1970-1971) faded from about 13.5 to14.9 and then recovered slightly. Their photospheric spectra resemblethat of a rotationally broadened, slightly veiled supergiant of abouttype G0 Ib, with veqsini=70 km s-1 for FU Ori, and55 km s-1 for V1057 Cyg. As V1057 Cyg faded, P Cyg structurein Hα and the IR Ca II lines strengthened and a complexshortward-displaced shell spectrum of low-excitation lines of theneutral metals (including Li I and Rb I) increased in strength,disappeared in 1999, and reappeared in 2001. Several SOFIN runs extendedover a number of successive nights so that a search for rapid and cyclicchanges in the spectra was possible. These spectra show rapidnight-to-night changes in the wind structure of FU Ori at Hα,including clear evidence of sporadic infall. The equivalent width of theP Cyg absorption varied cyclically with a period of 14.8 days, withphase stability maintained over three seasons. This is believed to bethe rotation period of FU Ori. The internal structure of itsphotospheric lines also varies cyclically, but with a period of 3.54days. A similar variation may be present in V1057 Cyg, but the data aremuch noisier and that result uncertain. As V1057 Cyg has faded and thecontinuum level fallen, the emission lines of a preexistinglow-excitation chromosphere have emerged. Therefore we believe that the``line doubling'' in V1057 Cyg is produced by these central emissioncores in the absorption lines, not by orbital motion in an inclinedKeplerian disk. No convincing dependence of veqsini onwavelength or excitation potential was detected in either FU Ori orV1057 Cyg, again contrary to expectation for a self-luminous accretiondisk. It was found also that certain critical lines in the near infraredare not accounted for by synthetic disk spectra. It is concluded that arapidly rotating star near the edge of stability, as proposed by Larson,can better account for these observations. The possibility is alsoconsidered that FUor eruptions are not a property of ordinary T Tauristars but may be confined to a special subspecies of rapidly rotatingpre-main-sequence stars having powerful quasi-permanent winds.

Radial Velocities for 889 Late-Type Stars
We report radial velocities for 844 FGKM-type main-sequence and subgiantstars and 45 K giants, most of which had either low-precision velocitymeasurements or none at all. These velocities differ from the standardstars of Udry et al. by 0.035 km s-1 (rms) for the 26 FGKstandard stars in common. The zero point of our velocities differs fromthat of Udry et al.: =+0.053km s-1. Thus, these new velocities agree with the best knownstandard stars both in precision and zero point, to well within 0.1 kms-1. Nonetheless, both these velocities and the standardssuffer from three sources of systematic error, namely, convectiveblueshift, gravitational redshift, and spectral type mismatch of thereference spectrum. These systematic errors are here forced to be zerofor G2 V stars by using the Sun as reference, with Vesta and day sky asproxies. But for spectral types departing from solar, the systematicerrors reach 0.3 km s-1 in the F and K stars and 0.4 kms-1 in M dwarfs. Multiple spectra were obtained for all 889stars during 4 years, and 782 of them exhibit velocity scatter less than0.1 km s-1. These stars may serve as radial velocitystandards if they remain constant in velocity. We found 11 newspectroscopic binaries and report orbital parameters for them. Based onobservations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operatedjointly by the University of California and the California Institute ofTechnology, and on observations obtained at the Lick Observatory, whichis operated by the University of California.

A Strategy for Identifying the Grid Stars for the Space Interferometry Mission
We present a strategy to identify several thousand stars that areastrometrically stable at the microarcsecond level for use in the SpaceInterferometry Mission (SIM) astrometric grid. The requirements on thegrid stars make this a rather challenging task. Taking a variety ofconsiderations into account, we argue for K giants as the best type ofstars for the grid, mainly because they can be located at much largerdistances than any other type of star owing to their intrinsicbrightness. We show that it is possible to identify suitable candidategrid K giants from existing astrometric catalogs. However, double starshave to be eliminated from these candidate grid samples, since theygenerally produce much larger astrometric jitter than tolerable for thegrid. The most efficient way to achieve this is probably by means of aradial velocity survey. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach,we repeatedly measured the radial velocities for a preselected sample of86 nearby Hipparcos K giants with precisions of 5-8 m s-1.The distribution of the intrinsic radial velocity variations for thebona fide single K giants shows a maximum around 20 m s-1,which is small enough not to severely affect the identification ofstellar companions around other K giants. We use the results of ourobservations as input parameters for Monte Carlo simulations on thepossible design of a radial velocity survey of all grid stars. Ourfavored scenario would result in a grid which consists to 68% of truesingle stars and to 32% of double or multiple stars with periods mostlylarger than 200 years, but only 3.6% of all grid stars would displayastrometric jitter larger than 1 μas. This contamination level isprobably tolerable.

The M 31 double nucleus probed with OASIS. A natural vec m = 1 mode?
We present observations with the adaptive optics assisted integral fieldspectrograph OASIS of the M 31 double nucleus in the spectral domainaround the Calcium triplet at a spatial resolution better than 0farcs5FWHM. These data are used to derive the two-dimensional stellarkinematics within the central 2 arcsec. Archival WFPC2/HST images in theF300W, F555W and F814W bands are revisited to perform a photometricdecomposition of the nuclear region. We also present STIS/HST kinematicsobtained from the archive. The luminosity distribution of the centralregion is well separated into the respective contributions of the bulge,the nucleus including P1 and P2, and the so-called UV peak. We thenshow, using the OASIS kinematical maps, that the axis joining P1 and P2,the two local surface brightness maxima, does not coincide with thekinematic major-axis, which is also the major-axis of the nuclearisophotes (excluding P1). We also confirm that the velocity dispersionpeak is offset by ~ 0farcs2 from the UV peak, assumed to mark thelocation of the supermassive black hole. The newly reduced STIS/HSTvelocity and dispersion profiles are then compared to OASIS and otherpublished kinematics. We find significant offsets with previouslypublished data. Simple parametric models are then built to successfullyreconcile all the available kinematics. We finally interpret theobservations using new N-body simulations. The nearly Keplerian nucleardisk of M 31 is subject to a natural m=1 mode, with a very slow patternspeed (3 km s-1/pc for MBH = 7 107Msun), that can be maintained during more than a thousanddynamical times. The resulting morphology and kinematics of the mode canreproduce the M 31 nuclear-disk photometry and mean stellar velocity,including the observed asymmetries. It requires a central massconcentration and a cold disk system representing between 20 and 40% ofits mass. Such a slow mode could be excited when interstellar cloudsfrom the more external gaseous disk infall towards the centre. Nucleardisks formed from accreted gas are possible candidates for theprecursors of these types of structures, and may be common in centralregions of galaxies. Based on observations collected at theCanada-France-Hawaii Telescope, operated by the National ResearchCouncil of Canada, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique ofFrance, and the University of Hawaii.} and HST

The proper motions of fundamental stars. I. 1535 stars from the Basic FK5
A direct combination of the positions given in the HIPPARCOS cataloguewith astrometric ground-based catalogues having epochs later than 1939allows us to obtain new proper motions for the 1535 stars of the BasicFK5. The results are presented as the catalogue Proper Motions ofFundamental Stars (PMFS), Part I. The median precision of the propermotions is 0.5 mas/year for mu alpha cos delta and 0.7mas/year for mu delta . The non-linear motions of thephotocentres of a few hundred astrometric binaries are separated intotheir linear and elliptic motions. Since the PMFS proper motions do notinclude the information given by the proper motions from othercatalogues (HIPPARCOS, FK5, FK6, etc.) this catalogue can be used as anindependent source of the proper motions of the fundamental stars.Catalogue (Table 3) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strastg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/365/222

Two K Giants with Supermeteoritic Lithium Abundances: HDE 233517 and HD 9746
Two unusual Li-rich K giants, HDE 233517 and HD 9746, have been studied.Optical spectroscopy and photometry have been obtained to determine thefundamental parameters of HDE 233517, a single K2 III with an extremelylarge infrared excess. The spectra yield Teff=4475 K,logg=2.25, [Fe/H]=-0.37, vsini=17.6 km s-1, and a non-LTElogɛ(7Li)=4.22. Photometric observations reveallow-amplitude light variability with a period of 47.9 days. Combinedwith other parameters, this results in a minimum radius of 16.7Rsolar and minimum distance of 617 pc. Comparison of spectraobtained in 1994 and 1996 show profile variations in Hα and the NaD lines indicative of changing mass loss. Optical spectra of HD 9746, achromospherically active giant, were analyzed. The Teff=4400K and revised Hipparcos-based gravity of logg=2.30 lead to a non-LTElogɛ(7Li)=3.75. The Li abundances in both stars aresupermeteoritic. By the inclusion and exclusion of 6Li in thesyntheses, we show that consistent 7Li abundances areobtained only when 6Li is absent in the synthetic fit. Thisprovides evidence for fresh 7Li production and excludes bothpreservation of primordial Li and planetary accretion as viablescenarios for the formation of Li-rich giants. Both stars lie in closeproximity to the red giant luminosity bump supporting the hypothesisthat 7Li production is caused by the same mixing mechanismthat later results in CN processing and lowers the12C/13C ratio to nonstandard values.

K-Band Calibration of the Red Clump Luminosity
The average near-infrared (K-band) luminosity of 238 Hipparcos red clumpgiants is derived and then used to measure the distance to the Galacticcenter. These Hipparcos red clump giants have been previously employedas I-band standard candles. The advantage of the K-band is a decreasedsensitivity to reddening and perhaps a reduced systematic dependence onmetallicity. In order to investigate the latter, and also to refer ourcalibration to a known metallicity zero point, we restrict our sample ofred clump calibrators to those with abundances derived fromhigh-resolution spectroscopic data. The mean metallicity of the sampleis [Fe/H]=-0.18 dex (σ=0.17 dex). The data are consistent with nocorrelation between MK and [Fe/H] and only weakly constrainthe slope of this relation. The luminosity function of the sample peaksat MK=-1.61+/-0.03 mag. Next, we assemble published opticaland near-infrared photometry for ~20 red clump giants in a Baade'swindow field with a mean metallicity of [Fe/H]=-0.17+/-0.09 dex, whichis nearly identical to that of the Hipparcos red clump. Assuming thatthe average (V-I)0 and (V-K)0 colors of these twored clumps are the same, the extinctions in the Baade's window field arefound to be AV=1.56, AI=0.87, andAK=0.15, in agreement with previous estimates. We derive thedistance to the Galactic center: (m-M)0=14.58+/-0.11 mag, orR=8.24+/-0.42 kpc. The uncertainty in this distance measurement isdominated by the small number of Baade's window red clump giantsexamined here.

An Improved Mass Determination for M31 from Its Satellite Galaxies
The High-Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on the Keck I telescope hasbeen used to measure the first radial velocities for stars belonging tothe Andromeda I and III dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Our radial velocityfor And III matches that reported by Blitz & Robishaw for anadjacent H I gas complex, supporting the association of this galaxy witha high-velocity cloud. New and previously published radial velocitiesfor a sample of confirmed or suspected M31 satellites are combined witha homogeneous set of distance estimates to calculate the total mass ofM31. Assuming the satellite orbits are isotropic, we find a median massof MA~=(7.9+/-0.5)×1011 Msolarfrom eight candidate satellites having deprojected distances from M31 inexcess of RA~=100 kpc. If the orbits are radial, the inferredmass increases to MA~=(21.5+/-3.8)×1011Msolar for circular orbits, the enclosed mass isMA~=(3.7+/-0.4)×1011 Msolar.These masses are somewhat lower than those found for luminous spiralgalaxies based on the ensemble dynamics of the their satellites,although the estimates are nevertheless consistent given the largeuncertainties.

Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part I. Basic fundamental stars with direct solutions
The FK6 is a suitable combination of the results of the HIPPARCOSastrometry satellite with ground-based data, measured over more than twocenturies and summarized in the FK5. Part I of the FK6 (abbreviatedFK6(I)) contains 878 basic fundamental stars with direct solutions. Suchdirect solutions are appropriate for single stars or for objects whichcan be treated like single stars. From the 878 stars in Part I, we haveselected 340 objects as "astrometrically excellent stars", since theirinstantaneous proper motions and mean (time-averaged) ones do not differsignificantly. Hence most of the astrometrically excellent stars arewell-behaving "single-star candidates" with good astrometric data. Thesestars are most suited for high-precision astrometry. On the other hand,199 of the stars in Part I are Δμ binaries in the sense ofWielen et al. (1999). Many of them are newly discovered probablebinaries with no other hitherto known indication of binarity. The FK6gives, besides the classical "single-star mode" solutions (SI mode),other solutions which take into account the fact that hidden astrometricbinaries among "apparently single-stars" introduce sizable "cosmicerrors" into the quasi-instantaneously measured HIPPARCOS proper motionsand positions. The FK6 gives in addition to the SI mode the "long-termprediction (LTP) mode" and the "short-term prediction (STP) mode". TheseLTP and STP modes are on average the most precise solutions forapparently single stars, depending on the epoch difference with respectto the HIPPARCOS epoch of about 1991. The typical mean error of anFK6(I) proper motion in the single-star mode is 0.35 mas/year. This isabout a factor of two better than the typical HIPPARCOS errors for thesestars of 0.67 mas/year. In the long-term prediction mode, in whichcosmic errors are taken into account, the FK6(I) proper motions have atypical mean error of 0.50 mas/year, which is by a factor of more than 4better than the corresponding error for the HIPPARCOS values of 2.21mas/year (cosmic errors included).

The 3D structure of the Virgo cluster from H-band Fundamental Plane and Tully-Fisher distance determinations
We undertook a surface photometry survey of 200 galaxies in the Virgocluster (complete to B<14.0 mag) carried out in the near-infrared(NIR) H band. Combining velocity dispersion measurements from theliterature with new spectroscopic data for 11 galaxies, we derivedistances of 59 early-type galaxies using the Fundamental Plane (FP)method. The distances of another 75 late-type galaxies are determinedusing the Tully-Fisher (TF) method. For this purpose we use the maximumrotational velocity, as derived from HI spectra from the literature,complemented with new Hα rotation curves of eight highlyHI-deficient galaxies. The zero-points of the FP and TF templaterelations are calibrated assuming the distance modulus of Virgomu_0=31.0, as determined with the Cepheids method. Using these 134distance determinations (with individual uncertainties of 0.35 mag (TF)and 0.45 mag (FP)) we find that the distance of cluster A, associatedwith M87, is mu_0=30.84 +/- 0.06. Cluster B, offset to the south, isfound at mu_0=31.84 +/- 0.10. This subcluster is falling on to A atabout 750 km s^-1. Clouds W and M are at twice the distance of A.Galaxies on the north-west and south-east of the main cluster A belongto two clouds composed almost exclusively of spiral galaxies withdistances consistent with A, but with significantly different velocitydistributions, suggesting that they are falling on to cluster A atapproximately 770 km s^-1 from the far side and at 200 km s^-1 from thenear side respectively. The mass of Virgo inferred from the peculiarmotions induced on its vicinity is consistent with the virialexpectation.

A catalog of rotational and radial velocities for evolved stars
Rotational and radial velocities have been measured for about 2000evolved stars of luminosity classes IV, III, II and Ib covering thespectral region F, G and K. The survey was carried out with the CORAVELspectrometer. The precision for the radial velocities is better than0.30 km s-1, whereas for the rotational velocity measurementsthe uncertainties are typically 1.0 km s-1 for subgiants andgiants and 2.0 km s-1 for class II giants and Ib supergiants.These data will add constraints to studies of the rotational behaviourof evolved stars as well as solid informations concerning the presenceof external rotational brakes, tidal interactions in evolved binarysystems and on the link between rotation, chemical abundance and stellaractivity. In this paper we present the rotational velocity v sin i andthe mean radial velocity for the stars of luminosity classes IV, III andII. Based on observations collected at the Haute--Provence Observatory,Saint--Michel, France and at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile. Table \ref{tab5} also available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Radial velocities. Measurements of 2800 B2-F5 stars for HIPPARCOS
Radial velocities have been determined for a sample of 2930 B2-F5 stars,95% observed by the Hipparcos satellite in the north hemisphere and 80%without reliable radial velocity up to now. Observations were obtainedat the Observatoire de Haute Provence with a dispersion of 80Ä,mm(-1) with the aim of studying stellar and galactic dynamics.Radial velocities have been measured by correlation with templates ofthe same spectral class. The mean obtained precision is 3.0 km s(-1)with three observations. A new MK spectral classification is estimatedfor all stars. Based on observations made at the Haute ProvenceObservatory, France and on data from The Hipparcos Catalogue, ESA.Tables 4, 5 and 6 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.htm

Catalogs of temperatures and [Fe/H] averages for evolved G and K stars
A catalog of mean values of [Fe/H] for evolved G and K stars isdescribed. The zero point for the catalog entries has been establishedby using differential analyses. Literature sources for those entries areincluded in the catalog. The mean values are given with rms errors andnumbers of degrees of freedom, and a simple example of the use of thesestatistical data is given. For a number of the stars with entries in thecatalog, temperatures have been determined. A separate catalogcontaining those data is briefly described. Catalog only available atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

A Search for Lithium-Rich Giants among Stars with Infrared Excesses
The unusual nature of the single, rapidly rotating, lithium-rich K giantHDE 233517, which is currently undergoing significant mass loss,prompted a search for giants with similar properties. High-dispersionspectroscopic observations were obtained of HD 219025, a knownlithium-rich infrared-excess giant, plus 39 stars from a list of G and Kgiants with excess far-infrared emission. The projected rotationalvelocities of the vast majority of infrared-excess giants appear to besimilar to those of normal G and K giants. Six giants have lithiumabundances at or above theoretical upper envelope values. The percentageof such stars in the sample of 39 infrared-excess giants is similar tothat of normal giants. The three giants with the largest lithiumabundances have previously been discovered. None of the sample of 39giants have an Hα line similar to the broadened and veryasymmetric line of HDE 233517. The star with optical properties mostsimilar to HDE 233517 is HD 219025.

The Tokyo PMC catalog 90-93: Catalog of positions of 6649 stars observed in 1990 through 1993 with Tokyo photoelectric meridian circle
The sixth annual catalog of the Tokyo Photoelectric Meridian Circle(PMC) is presented for 6649 stars which were observed at least two timesin January 1990 through March 1993. The mean positions of the starsobserved are given in the catalog at the corresponding mean epochs ofobservations of individual stars. The coordinates of the catalog arebased on the FK5 system, and referred to the equinox and equator ofJ2000.0. The mean local deviations of the observed positions from theFK5 catalog positions are constructed for the basic FK5 stars to comparewith those of the Tokyo PMC Catalog 89 and preliminary Hipparcos resultsof H30.

Rotational Velocities of Late-Type Stars
A calibration based on the results of Gray has been used to determineprojected rotational velocities for 133 bright stars with spectral typesof F, G, or K, most of which appear in {\it The Bright Star Catalogue}.The vast majority have {\it v} sin {\it i} $\leq$ 10 km s$^{-1}$ and,thus, are slow rotators. With the new calibration, projected rotationalvelocities have been determined for a sample of 111 late-type stars,most of which are chromospherically active. Some of the stars have hadtheir rotational velocities measured for the first time. (SECTION:Stars)

Systematic Errors in the FK5 Catalog as Derived from CCD Observations in the Extragalactic Reference Frame.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114..850S&db_key=AST

A catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations: 1996 edition
A fifth Edition of the Catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations is presentedherewith. It contains 5946 determinations for 3247 stars, including 751stars in 84 associations, clusters or galaxies. The literature iscomplete up to December 1995. The 700 bibliographical referencescorrespond to [Fe/H] determinations obtained from high resolutionspectroscopic observations and detailed analyses, most of them carriedout with the help of model-atmospheres. The Catalogue is made up ofthree formatted files: File 1: field stars, File 2: stars in galacticassociations and clusters, and stars in SMC, LMC, M33, File 3: numberedlist of bibliographical references The three files are only available inelectronic form at the Centre de Donnees Stellaires in Strasbourg, viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (, or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Library of high and mid-resolution spectra in the CA II H & K, Hα, Hβ NA i D1, D2, and He i D3 line regions of F, G, K and M field stars
In this work we present spectroscopic observations centered in thespectral lines most widely used as optical indicators of chromosphericactivity (Hα, Hβ, Ca ii H & K, and He i D3) ina sample of F, G, K and M chromospherically inactive stars. The spectrahave been obtained with the aim of providing a library of high andmid-resolution spectra to be used in the application of the spectralsubtraction technique to obtain the active-chromosphere contribution tothese lines in chromospherically active single and binary stars. Thislibrary can also be used for spectral classification purposes. A digitalversion with all the spectra is available via ftp and the World Wide Web(WWW) in both ASCII and FITS formats. Based on observations made withthe Isaac Newton telescope and the William Herschel Telescope operatedon the island of La Palma by the Royal Greenwich Observatory at theSpanish Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos of the Instituto deAstrofisica de Canarias, and with the 2.2 m telescope of the CentroAstronomico Hispano-Aleman of Calar Alto (Almeria, Spain) operatedjointly by the Max Planck Institut fur Astronomie (Heidelberg) and theSpanish Comision Nacional de Astronomia. The spectra of the stars listedin Table \protect\ref{tab:par} are also available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

The Stellar Content of Star Stream I
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996AJ....111.1615E&db_key=AST

The photoelectric astrolabe catalogue of Yunnan Observatory (YPAC).
The positions of 53 FK5, 70 FK5 Extension and 486 GC stars are given forthe equator and equinox J2000.0 and for the mean observation epoch ofeach star. They are determined with the photoelectric astrolabe ofYunnan Observatory. The internal mean errors in right ascension anddeclination are +/- 0.046" and +/- 0.059", respectively. The meanobservation epoch is 1989.51.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:04h09m10.00s
Apparent magnitude:5.5
Distance:89.206 parsecs
Proper motion RA:106.3
Proper motion Dec:-31.5
B-T magnitude:6.88
V-T magnitude:5.624

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
Bayerωα Tau
Flamsteed43 Tau
HD 1989HD 26162
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 1259-984-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1050-01157952
BSC 1991HR 1283
HIPHIP 19388

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