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 Search for magnetic fields in A-type supergiantsWe have searched for magnetic signatures in A-type supergiants. Theobtained magnetic values for seven of these stars are presented here. Catalogue of averaged stellar effective magnetic fields. I. Chemically peculiar A and B type starsThis paper presents the catalogue and the method of determination ofaveraged quadratic effective magnetic fields < B_e > for 596 mainsequence and giant stars. The catalogue is based on measurements of thestellar effective (or mean longitudinal) magnetic field strengths B_e,which were compiled from the existing literature.We analysed the properties of 352 chemically peculiar A and B stars inthe catalogue, including Am, ApSi, He-weak, He-rich, HgMn, ApSrCrEu, andall ApSr type stars. We have found that the number distribution of allchemically peculiar (CP) stars vs. averaged magnetic field strength isdescribed by a decreasing exponential function. Relations of this typehold also for stars of all the analysed subclasses of chemicalpeculiarity. The exponential form of the above distribution function canbreak down below about 100 G, the latter value representingapproximately the resolution of our analysis for A type stars.Table A.1 and its references are only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/407/631 and Tables 3 to 9are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org Rotational velocities of A-type stars in the northern hemisphere. II. Measurement of v sin iThis work is the second part of the set of measurements of v sin i forA-type stars, begun by Royer et al. (\cite{Ror_02a}). Spectra of 249 B8to F2-type stars brighter than V=7 have been collected at Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP). Fourier transforms of several line profiles inthe range 4200-4600 Å are used to derive v sin i from thefrequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis of the sampleindicates that measurement error mainly depends on v sin i and thisrelative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 5% onaverage. The systematic shift with respect to standard values fromSlettebak et al. (\cite{Slk_75}), previously found in the first paper,is here confirmed. Comparisons with data from the literature agree withour findings: v sin i values from Slettebak et al. are underestimatedand the relation between both scales follows a linear law ensuremath vsin inew = 1.03 v sin iold+7.7. Finally, thesedata are combined with those from the previous paper (Royer et al.\cite{Ror_02a}), together with the catalogue of Abt & Morrell(\cite{AbtMol95}). The resulting sample includes some 2150 stars withhomogenized rotational velocities. Based on observations made atObservatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France. Tables \ref{results} and\ref{merging} are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/897 The MAIA candidate star HD 208727HD 208727 is a suspected member of the enigmatic MAIA variables andshows the largest yet observed amplitude in light variation for any ofthe potential members. Proven beyond doubt pulsation would pose aserious problem for stellar modelling and opacities, because eitheropacity source for driving pulsation has to be a different or newidentified, yet unkown, pulsation mechanism. We conclude from ourinvestigation that rotation is a more likely explanation for the lightvariability of HD 208727. The spectroscopic binaries 21 Her and gamma GemIn the framework of a search campaign for short-term oscillations ofearly-type stars we analysed recently obtained spectroscopic andphotometric observations of the early A-type spectroscopic binaries 21Her and gamma Gem. From the radial velocities of 21 Her we derived animproved orbital period and a distinctly smaller eccentricity incomparison with the values known up to now. Moreover, fairly convincingevidence exists for an increase of the orbital period with time. Inaddition to the orbital motion we find further periods in the orbitalresiduals. The longest period of 57\fd7 is most likely due to a thirdbody which has the mass of a brown dwarf, whereas the period of 1\fd48could be related to the half rotational period of the star. For thespectral types we deduced A1 III for the primary and M for thesecondary. Two further periods of 0\fd21 and 0\fd22 give hint to theexistence of short-term pulsations in 21 Her. Their period difference isof the order of the expected rotational period so that one possibleexplanation could be rotational splitting of nonradial pulsation modes.Because of the very strong aliasing of the data this finding has to beconfirmed by observations having a more suitable time sampling, however.The analysis of photometric series and the Hipparcos photometry give nocertain evidence for periodic light variations. For gamma Gem, besidesthe orbital RV variation, no variations with amplitudes larger thanabout 100 m s-1 could be detected. The orbital elements ofgamma Gem are only slightly changed compared to the previously knownorbital solution by including our new radial velocities, but theiraccuracy is improved. For some chemical elements we determined theirabundances, NLTE values of C, O, and Na as well as LTE values of Mg, Sc,Fe, Cr, and Ti. We find the abundances to be rather close to the solarvalues, only carbon shows a little underabundance. The research is basedon spectroscopic observations made with the 2 m telescope at theThüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Germany, and photometricobservations with the 0.6 m telescope of the National AstronomicalObservatory Rozhen, Bulgaria. Galaxy Populations and Evolution in Clusters. I. Dynamics and the Origin of Low-Mass Galaxies in the Virgo ClusterEarly-type dwarfs are the most common galaxy in the local universe, yettheir origin and evolution remain a mystery. Various cosmologicalscenarios predict that dwarf-like galaxies in dense areas are the firstto form and hence should be the oldest stellar systems in clusters. Byusing radial velocities of early-type dwarfs in the Virgo cluster wedemonstrate that these galaxies are not an old cluster population buthave signatures of production from the infall of field galaxies.Evidence of this includes the combined large dispersions andsubstructure in spatial and kinematic distributions for Virgo early-typedwarfs and a velocity dispersion ratio with giant ellipticals expectedfor virialized and accreted populations. We also argue that thesegalaxies cannot originate from accreted field dwarfs, but must havephysically evolved from a precursor population, of different morphology,that fell into Virgo some time in the past. Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 The proper motions of fundamental stars. I. 1535 stars from the Basic FK5A direct combination of the positions given in the HIPPARCOS cataloguewith astrometric ground-based catalogues having epochs later than 1939allows us to obtain new proper motions for the 1535 stars of the BasicFK5. The results are presented as the catalogue Proper Motions ofFundamental Stars (PMFS), Part I. The median precision of the propermotions is 0.5 mas/year for mu alpha cos delta and 0.7mas/year for mu delta . The non-linear motions of thephotocentres of a few hundred astrometric binaries are separated intotheir linear and elliptic motions. Since the PMFS proper motions do notinclude the information given by the proper motions from othercatalogues (HIPPARCOS, FK5, FK6, etc.) this catalogue can be used as anindependent source of the proper motions of the fundamental stars.Catalogue (Table 3) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strastg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/365/222 Another Search for Maia Variable StarsWe have used the Hipparcos epoch photometry database, andautocorrelation analysis, to search for the elusive Maiavariables-short-period B7-A3 near-main-sequence pulsating variablestars. Of several hundred stars considered, and several dozen starsstudied in detail, only a handful are possible variables: three arepossible shallow eclipsing variables; three have possible periods in therange 0.25-0.5 day, but their amplitudes are so low that they areprobably nonvariable. The most promising are HD 29573, with a period of1.6 days (but possibly a rotating variable), and γ CrB, with aperiod of 0.9 day-a period also found spectroscopically by Lehmann andcoworkers. Sirius shows variations which are probably instrumental. Twopreviously suspected Maia stars-Maia and γ UMi-are photometricallyconstant. The Maia variables-if they exist-are very rare and veryelusive. Astrophysics in 1999The year 1999 saw the arrival of a star with three planets, a universewith three parameters, and a solar corona that could be heated at leastthree ways. In addition, there were at least three papers on everyquestion that has ever been asked in astrophysics, from Will theUniverse expand forever?'' to Does mantle convection occur in one ortwo layers?'' The answers generally were, Yes,'' No,'' and None ofthe above,'' to each of the questions. The authors have done their bestto organize the richness around centers defined by objects, methods, andmadnesses. Cosmic Microwave Background Maps from the HACME ExperimentWe present cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps from the Santa BarbaraHACME balloon experiment (Staren et al.), covering about 1150 squaredegrees split between two regions in the northern sky, near the starsγ Ursae Minoris and α Leonis, respectively. The FWHM of thebeam is ~0.77d in three frequency bands centered on 39, 41, and 43 GHz.The results demonstrate that the thoroughly interconnected scan strategyemployed allows efficient removal of 1/f-noise and slightly variablescan-synchronous offsets. The maps display no striping, and the noisecorrelations are found to be virtually isotropic, decaying on an angularscale ~1°. The noise performance of the experiment resulted in anupper limit on CMB anisotropy. However, our results demonstrate thatatmospheric contamination and other systematics resulting from thecircular scanning strategy can be accurately controlled and bode wellfor the planned follow-up experiments BEAST and ACE, since they showthat even with the overly cautious assumption that 1/f-noise and offsetswill be as dominant as for HACME, the problems they pose can be readilyovercome with the mapmaking algorithm discussed. Our prewhitenednotch-filter algorithm for destriping and offset removal is provinguseful also for other balloon- and ground-based experiments whose scanstrategies involve substantial interleaving, e.g., Boomerang. A-shell stars in the Geneva systemAmong the various kinds of A stars having a peculiar spectrum, we findthe A-shell stars. Many questions are still open concerning these stars,including their evolutionary status. In the present study we have useddata from the Hipparcos catalogue to examine this point. We have foundthat the majority of A-shell stars are well above the main sequence. Nodifferences could be established between A-shell stars in luminosityclasses III and I and those in luminosity class V as regardsvariability, duplicity, or the importance of the shell feature. Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part I. Basic fundamental stars with direct solutionsThe FK6 is a suitable combination of the results of the HIPPARCOSastrometry satellite with ground-based data, measured over more than twocenturies and summarized in the FK5. Part I of the FK6 (abbreviatedFK6(I)) contains 878 basic fundamental stars with direct solutions. Suchdirect solutions are appropriate for single stars or for objects whichcan be treated like single stars. From the 878 stars in Part I, we haveselected 340 objects as "astrometrically excellent stars", since theirinstantaneous proper motions and mean (time-averaged) ones do not differsignificantly. Hence most of the astrometrically excellent stars arewell-behaving "single-star candidates" with good astrometric data. Thesestars are most suited for high-precision astrometry. On the other hand,199 of the stars in Part I are Δμ binaries in the sense ofWielen et al. (1999). Many of them are newly discovered probablebinaries with no other hitherto known indication of binarity. The FK6gives, besides the classical "single-star mode" solutions (SI mode),other solutions which take into account the fact that hidden astrometricbinaries among "apparently single-stars" introduce sizable "cosmicerrors" into the quasi-instantaneously measured HIPPARCOS proper motionsand positions. The FK6 gives in addition to the SI mode the "long-termprediction (LTP) mode" and the "short-term prediction (STP) mode". TheseLTP and STP modes are on average the most precise solutions forapparently single stars, depending on the epoch difference with respectto the HIPPARCOS epoch of about 1991. The typical mean error of anFK6(I) proper motion in the single-star mode is 0.35 mas/year. This isabout a factor of two better than the typical HIPPARCOS errors for thesestars of 0.67 mas/year. In the long-term prediction mode, in whichcosmic errors are taken into account, the FK6(I) proper motions have atypical mean error of 0.50 mas/year, which is by a factor of more than 4better than the corresponding error for the HIPPARCOS values of 2.21mas/year (cosmic errors included). A Second Catalog of Orbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 Filter Photometry: Ultraviolet Photometry of 614 StarsUltraviolet photometry from the Wisconsin Experiment Package on theOrbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 (OAO 2) is presented for 614 stars.Previously unpublished magnitudes from 12 filter bandpasses withwavelengths ranging from 1330 to 4250 Å have been placed on thewhite dwarf model atmosphere absolute flux scale. The fluxes wereconverted to magnitudes using V=0 for F(V)=3.46x10^-9 ergs cm^-2 s^-1Å^-1, or m_lambda=-2.5logF_lambda-21.15. This second catalogeffectively doubles the amount of OAO 2 photometry available in theliterature and includes many objects too bright to be observed withmodern space observatories. Spectroscopic and photometric investigations of MAIA candidate starsIncluding our own observational material and the Hipparcos photometrydata, we investigate the radial velocity and brightness of suspectedMaia variable stars which are classified also in some examples aspeculiar stars, mainly for the existence of periodic variations withtime-scales of hours. The results lead to the following conclusions: (1)Short-term radial velocity variations have been unambiguously proved forthe A0 V star gamma CrB and the A2 III star gamma UMi. The stars pulsatein an irregular manner. Moreover, gamma CrB shows a multiperiodstructure quite similar to some of the best-studied neighbouring deltaScu stars. (2) In the Hipparcos photometry as well as in our photometricruns we find significant short- and long-term variations in the stars HD8441, 2 Lyn, theta Vir, gamma UMi, and gamma CrB. For ET And theHipparcos data confirm a short-period variation found already earlier.Furthermore, we find changes of the colour index in theta Vir and gammaCrB on a time-scale of days. (3) No proofs for the existence of aseparate class of variables, designated as Maia variables, are found. Ifthe irregular behaviour of our two best-investigated stars gamma CrB andgamma UMi is typical for pulsations in this region of theHertzsprung-Russell diagram, our observational runs are too short andthe accuracy of the measurements too low to exclude such pulsations inthe other stars, however. (4) The radial velocities of the binariesalpha Dra and ET And have been further used for a recalculation of theorbital elements. For HD 8441 and 2 Lyn we estimated the orbitalelements for the first time. (5) Zeeman observations of the stars gammaGem, theta Vir, alpha Dra, 4 Lac, and ET And give no evidence of thepresence of longitudinal magnetic field strengths larger than about 150gauss. Based on spectroscopic observations taken with the 2\,m telescopeat the Th{ü The Tokyo PMC catalog 90-93: Catalog of positions of 6649 stars observed in 1990 through 1993 with Tokyo photoelectric meridian circleThe sixth annual catalog of the Tokyo Photoelectric Meridian Circle(PMC) is presented for 6649 stars which were observed at least two timesin January 1990 through March 1993. The mean positions of the starsobserved are given in the catalog at the corresponding mean epochs ofobservations of individual stars. The coordinates of the catalog arebased on the FK5 system, and referred to the equinox and equator ofJ2000.0. The mean local deviations of the observed positions from theFK5 catalog positions are constructed for the basic FK5 stars to comparewith those of the Tokyo PMC Catalog 89 and preliminary Hipparcos resultsof H30. Accurate Two-dimensional Classification of Stellar Spectra with Artificial Neural NetworksWe present a solution to the long-standing problem of automaticallyclassifying stellar spectra of all temperature and luminosity classeswith the accuracy shown by expert human classifiers. We use the 15Angstroms resolution near-infrared spectral classification systemdescribed by Torres-Dodgen & Weaver in 1993. Using the spectrum withno manual intervention except wavelength registration, artificial neuralnetworks (ANNs) can classify these spectra with Morgan-Keenan types withan accuracy comparable to that obtained by human experts using 2Angstroms resolution blue spectra, which is about 0.5 types (subclasses)in temperature and about 0.25 classes in luminosity. Accuratetemperature classification requires a hierarchy of ANNs, whileluminosity classification is most successful with a single ANN. Wepropose an architecture for a fully automatic classification system. The Pulkovo Spectrophotometric Catalog of Bright Stars in the Range from 320 TO 1080 NMA spectrophotometric catalog is presented, combining results of numerousobservations made by Pulkovo astronomers at different observing sites.The catalog consists of three parts: the first contains the data for 602stars in the spectral range of 320--735 nm with a resolution of 5 nm,the second one contains 285 stars in the spectral range of 500--1080 nmwith a resolution of 10 nm and the third one contains 278 stars combinedfrom the preceding catalogs in the spectral range of 320--1080 nm with aresolution of 10 nm. The data are presented in absolute energy unitsW/m(2) m, with a step of 2.5 nm and with an accuracy not lower than1.5--2.0%. Measurements of Anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation at 0 degrees -8pt.5 Scales near the Stars HR 5127 and Phi HerculisWe present measurements of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropynear the stars HR 5127 and phi Herculis from the fifth flight of theMillimeter-wave Anisotropy eXperiment (MAX). We scanned 8 deg strips ofthe sky with an approximately Gaussian 0.dg5 FWHM beam and a 1.dg4 peakto peak sinusoidal chop. The instrument has four frequency bandscentered at 3.5, 6, 9, and 14 cm-1. The IRAS 100 mu m map predicts thatthese two regions have low interstellar dust contrast. The HR 5127 dataare consistent with CMB anisotropy. The phi Herculis data, which weremeasured at lower flight altitudes, show time variability at 9 and 14cm-1, which we believe to be due to atmospheric emission. However, thephi Herculis data at 3.5 and 6 cm-1 are essentially independent of thisatmospheric contribution and are consistent with CMB anisotropy.Confusion from Galactic foregrounds is unlikely based on the spectrumand amplitude of the structure at these frequencies. If the observed HR5127 structure and the atmosphere-independent phi Herculis structure areattributed to CMB anisotropy, then we find Delta T/T = 1/2 = 1.2 ^{+0.4}_{-0.3} x 10-5 for HR 5127 and 1.9^{+0.7}_{-0.4} x 10-5 for phi Herculis in the flat band approximation.The upper and lower limits represent a 68% confidence interval added inquadrature with a 10% calibration uncertainty. The Stellar Content of Star Stream IAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996AJ....111.1615E&db_key=AST The Relation between Rotational Velocities and Spectral Peculiarities among A-Type StarsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJS...99..135A&db_key=AST Neural Network Classification of the Near-Infrared Spectra of A-Type StarsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...446..300W&db_key=AST Measurements of the millimeter-wave spectrum of interstellar dust emissionWe report measurements of the differential brightness of interstellardust emission near the Galactic plane and at high Galactic latitudes.The data were obtained as part of a program to measure anisotropy in thecosmic microwave background (CMB). The measurements were made with a 0.5deg beam size and a 1.3 deg sinusoidal chop, in broad bands (Delta nu/nuapproximately 0.3) centered near frequencies of 6, 9, and 12cm-1. A measurement made toward the Galactic plane, atlongitude 1 = 23.7 deg, is compared with the contrast observed in the100 micrometers IRAS data. Assuming the dust emission has a brightnessInu proportional tonunBnu(Td), where Bnu is thePlanck function, a best fit yields n = 1.6 +/- 0.4, Td = 24+/- 5 K. In a region near the star mu Pegasi (mu PEG l = 91 deg, b = -31deg), the comparison of our data with the 100 micrometers IRAS datayields n = 1.4 +/- 0.4, and Td = 18 +/- 3 K. In a secondregion near the star gamma Ursa Minoris (GUM l = 108 deg, b = 41 deg),an upper limit is placed on contrast in dust emission. This upper limitis consistent with spectrum measured at mu PEG and the IRAS 100micrometer emission contrast at GUM, which is approximately 8 timeslower than mu PEG. A first map of the cosmic microwave background at 0.5 deg resolutionWe use a maximum entropy technique to reconstruct a map of the microwavesky near the star gamma Ursae Minoris, based on data from flights 2, 3,and 4 of the Millimeter-wave Anisotropy Experiment (MAX). Window functions of cosmic microwave background experimentsWe discuss the applicability and derivation of window functions forcosmic microwave background experiments on large and intermediateangular scales. These window functions describe the response of theexperiment to power in a particular mode of the fluctuation spectrum. Wegive general formulae, illustrated with specific examples, for the mostcommon observing strategies. Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with. A catalogue of variable stars in the lower instability strip.Identifications, positions, photometry, spectra, some pulsationalfeatures, other astrophysical parameters and literature for 302pulsating variable stars in the lower instability strip, near the ZAMS,are given. About 185 stars have near homogeneous photometric informationin the Stroemgren's uvby-β photometric system. Thiscatalogue/database covers information published until November 1993. Variability investigations of possible Maia stars.Series of spectrograms and a limited number of photometric measurementsof selected early-type stars have been used to search in the measuredradial velocities and light curves for stellar pulsations withtimescales of a few hours. For these stars, located in the HR diagrambetween the β Cep and the δ Scu stars and designed sometimesas Maia variables, the presence of pulsations is claimed to be a commonproperty. In our sample we found no hints for a general existence ofsuch pulsations. RV-variations with the expected short-term scale couldbe observed for only two of the program stars, γ UMi and γCrB. The variations are highly irregular in amplitude and frequency. Onthe other hand, for both stars a typical mean timescale of theRV-variation of about 2.4hr has been found which gives some hints topossibly common physical causes of short-term variations of stars inthis part of the HR diagram. The RV-variation of γ CrB in theyears 1992/93 could be attributed to a rotational splitting of nonradialpulsations. BIMA observations of possible microwave background sources.We present sensitive upper limits on the 90GHz flux of known radio andinfrared sources in regions associated with possible cosmic microwavebackground fluctuations at 0.5-1 degree scales. Specifically we lookedat the MAX GUM region and the region of strongest fluctuation in theMSAM scan. None of the known sources can account for the levels ofanisotropy seen. Analysis of small-scale microwave background radiation anisotropy in the presence of foreground contaminationMany of the current round of experiments searching for anisotropies inthe microwave background radiation (MBR) are confronting the problem ofhow to disentangle the cosmic signal from contamination due to Galacticand intergalactic foreground sources. Here we show how commonly usedlikelihood function techniques can be generalized to account forforeground. Specifically we set some restrictions on the spectrum offoreground contamination but allow the amplitude to vary arbitrarily.The likelihood function thus generalized gives reasonable limits on theMBR anisotropy which, in some cases, are not much less restrictive thanwhat one would get from more detailed modeling of the foreground.Furthermore, the likelihood function is exactly the same as one wouldobtain by simply projecting out foreground contamination and looking atthe reduced data set. We apply this generalized analysis to the recentmedium-angle data sets of ACME-HEMT (Gaier et al. 1992; Schuster et al.1993) and MAX (Meinhold et al. 1993; Gunderson et al. 1993). Theresulting analysis constrains the one free parameter in the standardcold dark matter theory to be Qrms-ps =18-5+8 microKelvin. This best fit value, althoughin striking agreement with the normalization from Cosmic BackgroundExplorer (COBE), is not a very good fit, with an overallchi-squared/degrees of freedom = 208/168. We also argue against threecommonly used methods of dealing with foreground: (1) ignoring itcompletely; (2) subtracting off a best-fit foreground and treating theresiduals as if uncontaminated; and (3) culling data which appears to becontaminated by foreground.
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