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39 Aur (39 Aurigae)



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Rotation- and temperature-dependence of stellar latitudinal differential rotation
More than 600 high resolution spectra of stars with spectral type F andlater were obtained in order to search for signatures of differentialrotation in line profiles. In 147 stars the rotation law could bemeasured, with 28 of them found to be differentially rotating.Comparison to rotation laws in stars of spectral type A reveals thatdifferential rotation sets in at the convection boundary in theHR-diagram; no star that is significantly hotter than the convectionboundary exhibits the signatures of differential rotation. Four lateA-/early F-type stars close to the convection boundary and at v sin{i}≈ 100 km s-1 show extraordinarily strong absolute shear atshort rotation periods around one day. It is suggested that this is dueto their small convection zone depth and that it is connected to anarrow range in surface velocity; the four stars are very similar inTeff and v sin{i}. Detection frequencies of differentialrotation α = ΔΩ/Ω > 0 were analyzed in starswith varying temperature and rotation velocity. Measurable differentialrotation is more frequent in late-type stars and slow rotators. Thestrength of absolute shear, ΔΩ, and differential rotationα are examined as functions of the stellar effective temperatureand rotation period. The highest values of ΔΩ are found atrotation periods between two and three days. In slower rotators, thestrongest absolute shear at a given rotation rateΔΩmax is given approximately byΔΩmax ∝ P-1, i.e.,αmax ≈ const. In faster rotators, bothαmax and ΔΩmax diminish lessrapidly. A comparison with differential rotation measurements in starsof later spectral type shows that F-stars exhibit stronger shear thancooler stars do and the upper boundary in absolute shear ΔΩwith temperature is consistent with the temperature-scaling law found inDoppler Imaging measurements.

The Geneva-Copenhagen survey of the Solar neighbourhood. Ages, metallicities, and kinematic properties of ˜14 000 F and G dwarfs
We present and discuss new determinations of metallicity, rotation, age,kinematics, and Galactic orbits for a complete, magnitude-limited, andkinematically unbiased sample of 16 682 nearby F and G dwarf stars. Our˜63 000 new, accurate radial-velocity observations for nearly 13 500stars allow identification of most of the binary stars in the sampleand, together with published uvbyβ photometry, Hipparcosparallaxes, Tycho-2 proper motions, and a few earlier radial velocities,complete the kinematic information for 14 139 stars. These high-qualityvelocity data are supplemented by effective temperatures andmetallicities newly derived from recent and/or revised calibrations. Theremaining stars either lack Hipparcos data or have fast rotation. Amajor effort has been devoted to the determination of new isochrone agesfor all stars for which this is possible. Particular attention has beengiven to a realistic treatment of statistical biases and errorestimates, as standard techniques tend to underestimate these effectsand introduce spurious features in the age distributions. Our ages agreewell with those by Edvardsson et al. (\cite{edv93}), despite severalastrophysical and computational improvements since then. We demonstrate,however, how strong observational and theoretical biases cause thedistribution of the observed ages to be very different from that of thetrue age distribution of the sample. Among the many basic relations ofthe Galactic disk that can be reinvestigated from the data presentedhere, we revisit the metallicity distribution of the G dwarfs and theage-metallicity, age-velocity, and metallicity-velocity relations of theSolar neighbourhood. Our first results confirm the lack of metal-poor Gdwarfs relative to closed-box model predictions (the ``G dwarfproblem''), the existence of radial metallicity gradients in the disk,the small change in mean metallicity of the thin disk since itsformation and the substantial scatter in metallicity at all ages, andthe continuing kinematic heating of the thin disk with an efficiencyconsistent with that expected for a combination of spiral arms and giantmolecular clouds. Distinct features in the distribution of the Vcomponent of the space motion are extended in age and metallicity,corresponding to the effects of stochastic spiral waves rather thanclassical moving groups, and may complicate the identification ofthick-disk stars from kinematic criteria. More advanced analyses of thisrich material will require careful simulations of the selection criteriafor the sample and the distribution of observational errors.Based on observations made with the Danish 1.5-m telescope at ESO, LaSilla, Chile, and with the Swiss 1-m telescope at Observatoire deHaute-Provence, France.Complete Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/418/989

A Planetary Companion to HD 40979 and Additional Planets Orbiting HD 12661 and HD 38529
We report the detection of three extrasolar planets from the Lick andKeck observatories. The F8 V star HD 40979 has a companion with orbitalperiod P=263.1+/-3 days, eccentricity e=0.25+/-0.05, and velocitysemiamplitude K=101.2+/-5.6 m s-1. The inferred semimajoraxis is 0.83 AU and Msini=3.28MJup. Observations of planetarycompanions orbiting the G6 V star HD 12661 and the G4 IV star HD 38529have already been published, and here we report additional, longerperiod companions for both of these stars. The outer companion to HD12661 has Pc=1444.5+/-12.5 days, ec=0.20+/-0.04,and Kc=27.6+/-2.5 m s-1. Adopting a stellar massof 1.07 Msolar, we find Mcsini=1.57MJupand a semimajor axis of 2.56 AU. The second companion to HD 38529 hasPc=2174+/-30 days, ec=0.36+/-0.05, andKc=170.5+/-9 m s-1. The assumed mass of 1.39Msolar for HD 38529 yieldsMcsini=12.7MJup and a semimajor axis of 3.68 AU.Photometric observations at Fairborn Observatory reveal low-amplitudebrightness variations in HD 40979 and HD 38529 due to rotationalmodulation in the visibility of photospheric starspots, and they yieldrotation periods of 7.0 and 35.7 days, respectively, very different fromthe planetary orbital periods. The orbital parameters of these twosystems are compared with updated parameters for all of the knownmultiple-planet systems. Updated velocities are provided for the ΥAndromedae system.Based on observations obtained at Lick Observatory, which is operated bythe University of California, and the W. M. Keck Observatory, which isoperated jointly by the University of California and the CaliforniaInstitute of Technology. Keck time has been granted by both NASA and theUniversity of California.

Differential rotation in rapidly rotating F-stars
We obtained high quality spectra of 135 stars of spectral types F andlater and derived ``overall'' broadening functions in selectedwavelength regions utilizing a Least Squares Deconvolution (LSD)procedure. Precision values of the projected rotational velocity v \siniwere derived from the first zero of the Fourier transformed profiles andthe shapes of the profiles were analyzed for effects of differentialrotation. The broadening profiles of 70 stars rotating faster than v\sini = 45 km s-1 show no indications of multiplicity nor ofspottedness. In those profiles we used the ratio of the first two zerosof the Fourier transform q_2/q_1 to search for deviations from rigidrotation. In the vast majority the profiles were found to be consistentwith rigid rotation. Five stars were found to have flat profilesprobably due to cool polar caps, in three stars cuspy profiles werefound. Two out of those three cases may be due to extremely rapidrotation seen pole on, only in one case (v \sini = 52 km s-1)is solar-like differential rotation the most plausible explanation forthe observed profile. These results indicate that the strength ofdifferential rotation diminishes in stars rotating as rapidly as v \sini>~ 50 km s-1.Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/412/813Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, 69.D-0015(B).

Rotational velocities of A-type stars in the northern hemisphere. II. Measurement of v sin i
This work is the second part of the set of measurements of v sin i forA-type stars, begun by Royer et al. (\cite{Ror_02a}). Spectra of 249 B8to F2-type stars brighter than V=7 have been collected at Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP). Fourier transforms of several line profiles inthe range 4200-4600 Å are used to derive v sin i from thefrequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis of the sampleindicates that measurement error mainly depends on v sin i and thisrelative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 5% onaverage. The systematic shift with respect to standard values fromSlettebak et al. (\cite{Slk_75}), previously found in the first paper,is here confirmed. Comparisons with data from the literature agree withour findings: v sin i values from Slettebak et al. are underestimatedand the relation between both scales follows a linear law ensuremath vsin inew = 1.03 v sin iold+7.7. Finally, thesedata are combined with those from the previous paper (Royer et al.\cite{Ror_02a}), together with the catalogue of Abt & Morrell(\cite{AbtMol95}). The resulting sample includes some 2150 stars withhomogenized rotational velocities. Based on observations made atObservatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France. Tables \ref{results} and\ref{merging} are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/897

Research Note Hipparcos photometry: The least variable stars
The data known as the Hipparcos Photometry obtained with the Hipparcossatellite have been investigated to find those stars which are leastvariable. Such stars are excellent candidates to serve as standards forphotometric systems. Their spectral types suggest in which parts of theHR diagrams stars are most constant. In some cases these values stronglyindicate that previous ground based studies claiming photometricvariability are incorrect or that the level of stellar activity haschanged. Table 2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/367/297

Absolute declinations with the photoelectric astrolabe at Calern Observatory (OCA)
A regular observational programme with a photoelectric astrolabe havebeen performed at ``Observatoire du Calern" (Observatoire de laCôte d'Azur, OCA, phi = +43() o44′55.011″; lambda =-0() h27() m42.44() s, Calern, Caussols, France) for the last twentyyears. It has been almost fully automatized between 1984 and 1987. Since1988 the photoelectric astrolabe was used without any modification. Inaddition to determining the daily orientation of the local vertical, theyearly analysis of the residuals permits to derive corrections to theused star catalogue \cite[(Vigouroux et al. 1992)]{vig92}. A globalreduction method was applied for the ASPHO observations. The new form ofthe equations \cite[(Martin & Leister 1997)]{mar97} give us thepossibility of using the entire set of the observing program using datataken at two zenith distances (30() o and 45() o). The program containsabout 41648 stars' transits of 269 different stars taken at``Observatoire du Calern" (OCA). The reduction was based on theHIPPARCOS system. We discuss the possibility of computing absolutedeclinations through stars belonging simultaneously to the 30() o and45() o zenith distances programmes. The absolute declination correctionswere determined for 185 stars with precision of 0.027arcsec and thevalue of the determined equator correction is -0.018arcsec +/-0.005arcsec . The instrumental effects were also determined. The meanepoch is 1995.29. Catalogue only available at CDS in electronic from viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

The Angular Momentum of Main Sequence Stars and Its Relation to Stellar Activity
Rotational velocities are reported for intermediate-mass main sequencestars it the field. The measurements are based on new, high S/N CCDspectra from the Coudé Feed Telescope of the Kitt Peak NationalObservatory. We analyze these rotation rates for a dependence on bothmass and age. We compare the average rotation speeds of the field starswith mean velocities for young stars in Orion, the Alpha Persei cluster,the Pleiades, and the Hyades. The average rotation speeds of stars moremassive than $\sim1.6$ \msun\experience little or no change during theevolutionary lifetimes of these stars on the zero age main sequence orwithin the main sequence band. Less massive stars in the range betwee n1.6\msun\ and 1.3\msun\ also show little decline in mean rotation ratewhile they are on the main sequence, and at most a factor of 2 decreasein velocity as they evolve off the main sequence. The {\it e}-foldingtime for the loss of angular momentum b y the latter group of stars isat least 1--2 billion years. This inferred characteristic time scale forspindown is far longer than the established rotational braking time forsolar-type stars with masses below $\sim1.3$ \msun. We conclude from acomparison of the trends in rotation with trends in chromospheric andcoronal activity that the overall decline in mean rotation speed alongthe main sequence, from $\sim2$ \msun\ down to $\sim1.3$ \msun, isimposed during the pre-main sequence phase of evolution, and that thispattern changes little thereafter while the star resides on the mainsequence. The magnetic activity implicated in the rotational spindown ofthe Sun and of similar stars during their main sequence lifetimes mus ttherefore play only a minor role in determining the rotation rates ofthe intermediate mass stars, either because a solar-like dynamo is weakor absent, or else the geometry of the magnetic field is appreciablyless effective in removing angular momentu m from these stars. (SECTION:Stars)

The Relation between Rotational Velocities and Spectral Peculiarities among A-Type Stars
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJS...99..135A&db_key=AST

Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.

The Hyades main sequence
Intermediate band, H-beta and RI observations of 72 Hyades cluster starsto V = 11 mag are reported and discussed. A modulus of 3.2 mag isderived on the basis of a comparison with field stars of large parallax.Also presented are observations of 98 main-sequence stars of the Hyadesgroup that were previously found to be group members from kinematicalconsiderations. Parallaxes of the group stars, computed on theassumption that they are members of an extended Hyades cluster, yieldmean values of (U, V, W) = (+40.5, -18.4, -4.9) km/s, with dispersionsof (2.3, 2.3, 6.0) km/s, compared with (+41.7, -18.4, -2.0) and (2.6,1.3, 1.9) km/s for the brightest cluster members. It is noted that allthe stars discussed can be considered as members of a supercluster inwhich only a slight relaxation control of the W velocities is presentfor stars far from the nucleus. Evidence is found, including that of thePraesepe cluster at Z = +80 pc, for some interchange between the U, V,and W velocities in stars farthest from the galactic plane, with thetotal cluster velocity being maintained.

MK spectral types for some F and G stars.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1979PASP...91...83C&db_key=AST

UVBY BET photometry of equatorial and southern bright stars.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1977A&AS...27...47H&db_key=AST

Spectral classification of the bright F stars.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1976PASP...88...95C&db_key=AST

Rotation of evolving A and F stars.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1972A&A....18..428D&db_key=AST

Light curve and photometric elements of beta Aur.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1971A&A....12..165J&db_key=AST

Stellar kinematics and evolution
Not Available

Catalog of Indidual Radial Velocities, 0h-12h, Measured by Astronomers of the Mount Wilson Observatory
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1970ApJS...19..387A&db_key=AST

Six-color photometry of stars. VIII. The colors of 409 stars of different spectral types
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1956ApJ...123..440S&db_key=AST

On the Mass of the RR Lyrae Stars.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1956ApJ...123..278S&db_key=AST

Sur la détermination de la grandeur de la discontinuité de Balmer par les méthodes de la photométrie à travers des filtres
Not Available

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:06h05m03.40s
Apparent magnitude:5.87
Distance:51.6 parsecs
Proper motion RA:-42.4
Proper motion Dec:-144.9
B-T magnitude:6.288
V-T magnitude:5.931

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names39 Aurigae
Flamsteed39 Aur
HD 1989HD 41074
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 2933-2393-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1275-05885425
BSC 1991HR 2132
HIPHIP 28823

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