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ψι Aur (Dolones Nonus)



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Observations of Hα, iron, and oxygen lines in B, Be, and shell stars
We carried out a spectroscopic survey of several B, Be, and shell starsin optical and near-infrared regions. Line profiles of the Hα lineand of selected Fe II and O I lines are presented.

The total-to-selective extinction ratio determined from near IR photometry of OB stars
The paper presents an extensive list of the total to selectiveextinction ratios R calculated from the infrared magnitudes of 597 O andB stars using the extrapolation method. The IR magnitudes of these starswere taken from the literature. The IR colour excesses are determinedwith the aid of "artificial standards" - Wegner (1994). The individualand mean values of total to selective extinction ratios R differ in mostcases from the average value R=3.10 +/-0.05 - Wegner (1993) in differentOB associations. The relation between total to selective extinctionratios R determined in this paper and those calculated using the "methodof variable extinction" and the Cardelli et al. (1989) formulae isdiscussed. The R values presented in this paper can be used to determineindividual absolute magnitudes of reddened OB stars with knowntrigonometric parallaxes.

Rotational Velocities of B Stars
We measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are ``nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age.

A Search for High-Velocity Be Stars
We present an analysis of the kinematics of Be stars based uponHipparcos proper motions and published radial velocities. We findapproximately 23 of the 344 stars in our sample have peculiar spacemotions greater than 40 km s-1 and up to 102 kms-1. We argue that these high-velocity stars are the resultof either a supernova that disrupted a binary or ejection by closeencounters of binaries in young clusters. Be stars spun up by binarymass transfer will appear as high-velocity objects if there wassignificant mass loss during the supernova explosion of the initiallymore massive star, but the generally moderate peculiar velocities of BeX-ray binaries indicate that the progenitors lose most of their massprior to the supernova (in accordance with model predictions). Binaryformation models for Be stars predict that most systems bypass thesupernova stage (and do not receive runaway velocities) to createultimately Be+white dwarf binaries. The fraction of Be stars spun up bybinary mass transfer remains unknown, since the post-mass transfercompanions are difficult to detect.

Statistical analysis of intrinsic polarization, IR excess and projected rotational velocity distributions of classical Be stars
We present the results of statistical analyses of a sample of 627 Bestars. The parameters of intrinsic polarization (p*),projected rotational velocity (v sin i), and near IR excesses have beeninvestigated. The values of p* have been estimated for a muchlarger and more representative sample of Be stars (~490 objects) thanpreviously. We have confirmed that most Be stars of early spectral typehave statistically larger values of polarization and IR excesses incomparison with the late spectral type stars. It is found that thedistributions of p* diverge considerably for the differentspectral subgroups. In contrast to late spectral types (B5-B9.5), thedistribution of p* for B0-B2 stars does not peak at the valuep*=0%. Statistically significant differences in the meanprojected rotational velocities (/line{vsin i}) are found for differentspectral subgroups of Be stars in the sense that late spectral typestars (V luminosity class) generally rotate faster than early types, inagreement with previously published results. This behaviour is, however,not obvious for the III-IV luminosity class stars. Nevertheless, thecalculated values of the ratio vt/vc of the truerotational velocity, vt, to the critical velocity forbreak-up, vc, is larger for late spectral type stars of allluminosity classes. Thus, late spectral type stars appear to rotatecloser to their break-up rotational velocity. The distribution of nearIR excesses for early spectral subgroups is bi-modal, the position ofthe second peak displaying a maximum value E(V-L)~ 1 . m 3for O-B1.5 stars, decreasing to E(V-L)~0. m8 for intermediatespectral types (B3-B5). It is shown that bi-modality disappears for latespectral types (B6-B9.5). No correlations were found betweenp* and near IR excesses and between E(V-L) and vsin i for thedifferent subgroups of Be stars. In contrast to near IR excesses, arelation between p* and far IR excesses at 12 mu m is clearlyseen. A clear relation between p* and vsin i (as well asbetween p* and /line{vsin i}/vc) is found by thefact that plots of these parameters are bounded by a ``triangular"distribution of p*: vsin i, with a decrease of p*towards very small and very large vsin i (and /line{vsini}/vc) values. The latter behaviour can be understood in thecontext of a larger oblateness of circumstellar disks for the stars witha rapid rotation. From the analysis of correlations between differentobservational parameters we conclude that circumstellar envelopes forthe majority of Be stars are optically thin disks with the range of thehalf-opening angle of 10degr

Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521

Line formation in Be star circumstellar disks Shear broadening, shell absorption, stellar obscuration and rotational parameter
We improve the theory of Horne & Marsh on shear broadening inaccretion disks of CVs and adapt it to Be star circumstellar disks.Stellar obscuration and shell absorption are taken into account indetail. It is shown that shell absorption is already present in thoseemission lines where the central depression does not drop below thestellar continuum. The model profiles are fitted to observed symmetricHα net emission lines with low equivalent width. The derived diskradii range from Rd = 5.3 R_* to Rd = 18 R_* andthe surface emissivity varies as ~ R-m with 1.6 < m <3.5. The comparison between model profiles of rotational parameterj>(1)/(2) with the optically thick Hα profile of HR 5440 rulesout the range of j>(1)/(2). This can be understood by the lack ofvelocity shear in the outer disk regions. We conclude that Keplerianrotation (j=(1)/(2)) is a valid approximation. Based on observationscollected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center (DSAZ), Calar Alto,operated by the Max-Plank-Institut für Astronomie Heidelbergjointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy. Based onobservations collected at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP),CNRS, France.

UBV photometry of Be stars at Hvar: 1972--1990
A summary of results of the systematic UBV photoelectric monitoring ofbright northern Be stars carried out at the Hvar Observatory between1972 and 1990 is presented. Altogether, 76 Be stars of all luminosityclasses were observed and 13,848 UBV measurements secured.Simultaneously, 9,648 UBV measurements of 48 check stars (most of themof early spectral types) were obtained. A careful transformation of allobservations into the standard Johnson system allowed detection andmonitoring of even very mild long-term light and colour variations ofthese objects. Almost all early-type Be stars in the sample turned outto be variable. For several stars phase-locked light variations relatedto their binary nature were established. Sudden brightenings, on a timescale of a few days, were detected for o Cas and QR Vul. Tables 2 and 3are only available in electronic form at CDS via ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright OB-type stars.
For the detailed statistical analysis of the X-ray emission of hot starswe selected all stars of spectral type O and B listed in the Yale BrightStar Catalogue and searched for them in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Inthis paper we describe the selection and preparation of the data andpresent a compilation of the derived X-ray data for a complete sample ofbright OB stars.

On the structure of Be star disks.
We investigate the geometrical structure of the emitting part ofcircumstellar envelopes around Be stars from an empirical point of view.We use new high-resolution, high-S/N spectroscopic data of the FeIIλ5317 and some other faint FeII emission lines in 27 Be starsshowing symmetrical emission lines (class 1). We find a clearcorrelation between its total width (measuring the maximum velocities ofcircumstellar matter) and the stellar rotational velocity. Thiscorrelation means that a typical Be envelope (or, more precisely, thatpart of it which is visible in optical emission lines) is anaxisymmetric, rotationally supported disk. For empirical investigationof the vertical structure, we use the occurrence of shell lines. Wedefine, as shell criterion based on FeII lines, a Be shell star as onewith FeII central intensity F_cd_/F_*_(FeII)<1. Using this forcalibrating an appropriate parameter for the much more frequentlyobserved Hα line, we find that shell stars are those withF_p_/F_cd_(Hα)>=1.5 where F_p_ is the mean peak intensity atHα. In a sample of 114 programme stars, we find a shell starfraction of 22.8%. This number is readily transformed into a halfopening angle of Be star disks, φ=13deg. We furthermore show thatBe disks must be thin at the inner edge, and may become fairly thick atthe outer rim. This, together with the small value of φ, isevidence for a conical or concave shape, the latter typical of ahydrostatically balanced disk. Finally we provide evidence that thefamous "shell-Be" phase transitions can naturally occur in such disks asa geometrical effect if they are seen under inclination i=~70deg and iftheir outer radius is variable with time.

Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.

A catalogue of radii of Be star line emitting regions
A bibliographic catalog of the radii of the line-emitting regions aroundBe stars is presented. The table also provides the separation of theemission peaks, the wavelength of the line used, observing date, and theV sin i value given by the author.

The behavior of the O I line 7772 in Be and related stars
We describe the spectra of more than sixty stars in the 7570-7980region. We find that O I 7772 is always in emission in Be stars: in theearliest types it is seen in clear emission whereas in the later typesit fills in the observed absorption line. We find a good correlation ofthe line intensity of O I 8446 with O I 7772, the former being aboutfour times stronger than the latter. We confirm the correlation with FeII 7712. We also derive the outer radii of the line emission formingregions and find that O I 7772 is formed very close to the starssurface, whereas Fe II is formed farther away. We also provide criteriato distinguish, at this wavelength range, the classical Be, Herbig Ae-Beand B(e) stars.

Near-IR observations of 101 Be stars
Observations of 101 Be stars taken over a two year period in the near-IRbetween 1 and 5 microns are presented and discussed. The near-IR colorexcess of all program stars is derived, and found to increase withwavelength for all these stars. The fraction of stars with color excessdoubles between 1.25 and 3.6 microns. There appears to be an upper limitto the magnitude of the color excess as a function of stellar type, withearly-type stars having a higher upper limit than later spectral types.No correlation of the presence or magnitude of color excess withprojected rotational velocity is evident. The spectral index of theexcess emission spectra is calculated for stars having color excess. Onaverage, the spectral index through the near-IR and far-IR IRASwavelength regimes is constant. There is evidence that some stars haveexcess emission with spectral index values outside the range expectedfor free-free and bound-free emission. This is attributed to either dustemission or the effect of absorption of photospheric emission by coolcircumstellar material along the line of sight to the star.

The Paschen P7 line in Be, AE and shell type stars
Observations of 36 Be, Ae, and shell stars in the region 984-1020 nm arepresented. P7 is seen in emission until AO and not afterwards. Fe II999.7 nm is seen in emission in about the same types; both emissionshave similar structures, and a good correlation exists between theequivalent widths of both lines. Also detected in nine Be stars is1.0173-micron emission and in four stars 995.6-nm emission. Both linesbelong to Fe II and appear when 999.7 nm is strong in emission.

Catalogue of i and w/w crit values for rotating early type stars
Not Available

Search for rapid spectral variability in Psi(9) Aurigae
Observations of Psi(9) Aur on five nights between January 29 andFebruary 3, 1988 were conducted as part of a search for rapid spectralvariability in Be stars. In addition, a series of H-alpha profiles witha time resolution of about 45 s was obtained for the star. A method forobtaining the standard deviation in continuum counts measurements isproposed. The estimated value of the standard deviation of the measuredequivalent widths of the H-alpha profiles was obtained using the methodof Chalabaev and Maillard (1983). Rapid variations of the standarddeviations of continuum counts and H-alpha equivalent widths were notobserved. For the continuum counts measurement standard deviations a fewhourly variations and two night-to-night variations were found.

Delta-a photometry of Be/shell stars
Existing spectrophotometry of Be/stars is used to synthesize the indexDelta-a, which is commonly used to identify CP2 stars (Ap stars).Together with direct measurements of Delta-a, it is shown that thephotometric behavior of the Be star Pleione during its recent shellepisode, mimicking a CP2-star by its Delta-a, is not a common phenomenonamong Be stars. The possible contamination of photometrically detectedCP2 stars is therefore negligible.

Rotational velocity of Be stars correlated with emission characteristics
A sample of shell and nonshell B0e-B5e stars with weak and strongemission, and shell and nonshell B6e-B9e stars with weak emission, arestudied to seek a correlation between the rotational velocity of Bestars and the emissive strength. These results and the distributions ofV sin i indicate that the hottest Be stars, B0e-B5e, with rotationalvelocities of about 345 km/s can develop the characteristics of strongemission. For stars which are slightly less hot, or stars with slightlysmaller rotational velocities, only characteristics of weak emission canbe developed, and the shell characteristics only develop when the staris viewed at a greater-than-33-deg inclination to the pole. It is alsonoted that stars with large rotational velocities, the strong-emissionB0e-B5e and weak-emission B6e-B9e stars, can show metallic shellcharacteristics when seen near the equatorial plane.

The local system of early type stars - Spatial extent and kinematics
Published uvby and H-beta photometric data and proper motions arecompiled and analyzed to characterize the structure and kinematics ofthe bright early-type O-A0 stars in the solar vicinity, with a focus onthe Gould belt. The selection and calibration techniques are explained,and the data are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussedin detail. The Gould belt stars of age less than 20 Myr are shown togive belt inclination 19 deg to the Galactic plane and node-lineorientation in the direction of Galactic rotation, while the symmetricaldistribution about the Galactic plane and kinematic properties (purecircular differential rotation) of the belt stars over 60 Myr oldresemble those of fainter nonbelt stars of all ages. The unresolveddiscrepancy between the expansion observed in the youngest nearby starsand the predictions of simple models of expansion from a point isattributed to the inhomogeneous distribution of interstellar matter.

Be-Stars and Shell Stars Observed with the 13-COLOR Photometric System - Part Two
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1984RMxAA...9..141S&db_key=AST

Absorption Line Profiles for 39 Rapidly Rotating Stars
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1984MNRAS.208..459S&db_key=AST

Far ultraviolet colors of B and Be stars
A far-UV color index, G, which is free of interstellar reddening effectsis applied to TD-1 satellite observations of B and Be stars listed inthe catalogs of Jamar et al. (1976) and Macau-Hercot et al. (1978). Theexpressions defining G(in terms of the wavelengths 146, 235, and 274 nm)and the S70 index of spectral type are set forth. Tables of mean andindividual-star G and S70 indices and plots of G versus S70, Delta-Gversus spectral type, Delta-G versus H-alpha and H-beta intensity, and Gversus V(sin i) are presented and discussed. The Be stars are classifiedas strong if they show strong Balmer emission, some Paschen and Fe IIemission, and IR excess; otherwise they are 'weak'. Weak Be stars arefound to have G similar to that of B stars, while G in strong Be starsis either much more negative or much less negative than in the B stars.No correlation is found between G and V(sin i) for either B or Be stars.

Spectral types and rotational velocities of the brighter Be stars and A-F type shell stars
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1982ApJS...50...55S&db_key=AST

The interstellar 2200 A band - A catalogue of equivalent widths
Not Available

Study of H-alpha profile in 72 Be stars
An H-alpha profile catalog of 72 Be stars observed with the Multiphotsystem of the Haute Provence Observatory is presented which shows thestructure of the H-alpha line emission to be both complex and variable,with a central absorption present in most cases. A correlation with therotational velocity is confirmed by measurements of widths at mid-heightof emission intensity, and the precision of the results presented isjudged to have been enhanced by the Gauss function calculation of lineprofiles. A determination of the H-alpha line wing extension shows thatthere exist correlations with the mid-height width, the v sin i, and thespectral type; the Be stars of group I are then clearly separable fromthose of other groups, in agreement with the hypothesized broadening ofthe H-alpha line from electron scattering of the envelope.

Thirteen-color photometry of Be stars
Thirteen-color photometry made at the San Pedro Matir Observatory inBaja California for a number of spectroscopically variable Be and shellstars is presented. Several of these stars show photometric variabilityin the UV and/or IR over a time base of two to three years. The moreinteresting stars are analyzed in terms of color-color diagrams, colorexcesses, spectral characteristics and changes in their energydistributions. Prospects for future research are discussed.

A classification of Be stars
Based upon a sample of 140 stars observed over 20 years for which about5,000 spectrograms are available, a classification scheme of Be stars ispresented. This is the first attempt to subdivide the Be star group intophysically significant subgroups, from which typical objects can beselected for further study. The four groups proposed are based upon adiscussion of spectrum characteristics, multicolor photometry,polarization, rotational velocities, UV spectral types and timevariability. Starting with the group membership of a Be star,predictions can be made of the future behavior of it.

HR 2557 : a luminous del SCT star.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1977PASP...89..941K&db_key=AST

Spectral classification from the ultraviolet line features of S2/68 spectra. II - Late B-type stars
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1977A&AS...30...71C&db_key=AST

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:06h56m32.30s
Apparent magnitude:5.87
Distance:253.165 parsecs
Proper motion RA:-4.9
Proper motion Dec:6.4
B-T magnitude:5.733
V-T magnitude:5.826

Catalogs and designations:
Proper NamesDolones Nonus
Dolones IX   (Edit)
Bayerψι Aur
HD 1989HD 50658
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 3391-2639-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1350-06894605
BSC 1991HR 2568
HIPHIP 33377

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