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|The Effective Temperature Scale of Galactic Red Supergiants: Cool, but Not As Cool As We Thought|
We use moderate-resolution optical spectrophotometry and the new MARCSstellar atmosphere models to determine the effective temperatures of 74Galactic red supergiants (RSGs). The stars are mostly members of OBassociations or clusters with known distances, allowing a criticalcomparison with modern stellar evolutionary tracks. We find we canachieve excellent matches between the observations and the reddenedmodel fluxes and molecular transitions, although the atomic lines Ca Iλ4226 and Ca II H and K are found to be unrealistically strong inthe models. Our new effective temperature scale is significantly warmerthan those in the literature, with the differences amounting to 400 Kfor the latest type M supergiants (i.e., M5 I). We show that the newlyderived temperatures and bolometric corrections give much betteragreement with stellar evolutionary tracks. This agreement provides acompletely independent verification of our new temperature scale. Thecombination of effective temperature and bolometric luminosities allowsus to calculate stellar radii; the coolest and most luminous stars (KWSgr, Case 75, KY Cyg, HD 206936=μ Cep) have radii of roughly 1500Rsolar (7 AU), in excellent accordance with the largeststellar radii predicted from current evolutionary theory, althoughsmaller than that found by others for the binary VV Cep and for thepeculiar star VY CMa. We find that similar results are obtained for theeffective temperatures and bolometric luminosities using only thedereddened V-K colors, providing a powerful demonstration of theself-consistency of the MARCS models.
|High resolution spectroscopy over lambda lambda 8500-8750 Å for GAIA. IV. Extending the cool MK stars sample|
A library of high resolution spectra of MK standard and reference stars,observed in support to the GAIA mission, is presented. The aim of thispaper is to integrate the MK mapping of Paper I of this series as wellas to consider stars over a wider range of metallicities. Radialvelocities are measured for all the target stars.The spectra are available in electronic form (ASCII format) at CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/406/995 and from the webpage http://ulisse.pd.astro.it/MoreMK/, where further bibliographicalinformation for the target stars is given.
|Velocity Distribution of Stars in the Pup-CMa Association|
The distribution of proper motions of stars in the Pup-CMa associationis presented. The stars' velocities are approximately parallel to eachother, which indicates that the stars are close together in space. Themutual distribution of stars and molecular clouds in the association isinterpreted as proof that the stars emerged from a single giganticprimordial molecular cloud (or several large clouds), destroyed byradiation and/or stellar wind coming from those stars. It is assumedthat part of that cloud is being dissipated, while part is being brokeninto several small clouds, which we are observing at present.
|On the Wilson-Bappu relationship in the Mg II k line|
An investigation is carried out on the Wilson-Bappu effect in the Mg Iik line at 2796.34 Å. The work is based on a selection of 230 starsobserved by both the IUE and HIPPARCOS satellites, covering a wide rangeof spectral types (F to M) and absolute visual magnitudes (-5.4<=MV <=9.0). A semi-automatic procedure is used to measurethe line widths, which applies also in the presence of strong centralabsorption reversal. The Wilson-Bappu relationship here provided isconsidered to represent an improvement over previous recent results forthe considerably larger data sample used, as well as for a properconsideration of the measurement errors. No evidence has been found fora possible dependence of the WB effect on stellar metallicity andeffective temperature.
|Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics|
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521
|The region of Collinder 121|
The distribution of bright B-type stars in a field with a radius of5° centred at the Galactic open cluster Cr 121 is studied utilizingStrömgren and Hβ photometry. All PPM stars earlier thanspectral type A0 are used, revealing a loose nearby structure at adistance of 660-730pc, and a compact more distant group, which appearsto be a genuine cluster: Cr 121. Based on similar coordinates, distancesand positions on the colour-magnitude (CM) and Hertzsprung-Russell (HR)diagrams, 11 photometric cluster members are selected at a mean distanceof 1085(+/-41 standard error) pc. The results are discussed in the lightof both classical and Hipparcos points of view.
|Dating Ptolemy's star catalogue through proper motions : the Hipparchan epoch.|
|Absolute proper motions of open clusters. I. Observational data|
Mean proper motions and parallaxes of 205 open clusters were determinedfrom their member stars found in the Hipparcos Catalogue. 360 clusterswere searched for possible members, excluding nearby clusters withdistances D < 200 pc. Members were selected using ground basedinformation (photometry, radial velocity, proper motion, distance fromthe cluster centre) and information provided by Hipparcos (propermotion, parallax). Altogether 630 certain and 100 possible members werefound. A comparison of the Hipparcos parallaxes with photometricdistances of open clusters shows good agreement. The Hipparcos dataconfirm or reject the membership of several Cepheids in the studiedclusters. Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|New OB-Association in Pup - CMA|
|A HIPPARCOS Census of the Nearby OB Associations|
A comprehensive census of the stellar content of the OB associationswithin 1 kpc from the Sun is presented, based on Hipparcos positions,proper motions, and parallaxes. It is a key part of a long-term projectto study the formation, structure, and evolution of nearby young stellargroups and related star-forming regions. OB associations are unbound``moving groups,'' which can be detected kinematically because of theirsmall internal velocity dispersion. The nearby associations have a largeextent on the sky, which traditionally has limited astrometricmembership determination to bright stars (V<~6 mag), with spectraltypes earlier than ~B5. The Hipparcos measurements allow a majorimprovement in this situation. Moving groups are identified in theHipparcos Catalog by combining de Bruijne's refurbished convergent pointmethod with the ``Spaghetti method'' of Hoogerwerf & Aguilar.Astrometric members are listed for 12 young stellar groups, out to adistance of ~650 pc. These are the three subgroups Upper Scorpius, UpperCentaurus Lupus, and Lower Centaurus Crux of Sco OB2, as well as VelOB2, Tr 10, Col 121, Per OB2, alpha Persei (Per OB3), Cas-Tau, Lac OB1,Cep OB2, and a new group in Cepheus, designated as Cep OB6. Theselection procedure corrects the list of previously known astrometricand photometric B- and A-type members in these groups and identifiesmany new members, including a significant number of F stars, as well asevolved stars, e.g., the Wolf-Rayet stars gamma^2 Vel (WR 11) in Vel OB2and EZ CMa (WR 6) in Col 121, and the classical Cepheid delta Cep in CepOB6. Membership probabilities are given for all selected stars. MonteCarlo simulations are used to estimate the expected number of interloperfield stars. In the nearest associations, notably in Sco OB2, thelater-type members include T Tauri objects and other stars in the finalpre-main-sequence phase. This provides a firm link between the classicalhigh-mass stellar content and ongoing low-mass star formation. Detailedstudies of these 12 groups, and their relation to the surroundinginterstellar medium, will be presented elsewhere. Astrometric evidencefor moving groups in the fields of R CrA, CMa OB1, Mon OB1, Ori OB1, CamOB1, Cep OB3, Cep OB4, Cyg OB4, Cyg OB7, and Sct OB2, is inconclusive.OB associations do exist in many of these regions, but they are eitherat distances beyond ~500 pc where the Hipparcos parallaxes are oflimited use, or they have unfavorable kinematics, so that the groupproper motion does not distinguish it from the field stars in theGalactic disk. The mean distances of the well-established groups aresystematically smaller than the pre-Hipparcos photometric estimates.While part of this may be caused by the improved membership lists, arecalibration of the upper main sequence in the Hertzsprung-Russelldiagram may be called for. The mean motions display a systematicpattern, which is discussed in relation to the Gould Belt. Six of the 12detected moving groups do not appear in the classical list of nearby OBassociations. This is sometimes caused by the absence of O stars, but inother cases a previously known open cluster turns out to be (part of) anextended OB association. The number of unbound young stellar groups inthe solar neighborhood may be significantly larger than thoughtpreviously.
|Lithium abundance and mass|
Observations of cool giants have shown that there exists a large rangein their lithium abundances even for apparently similar stars. Thedepletions are large in a majority of them, far in excess of thepredictions of the standard stellar evolution models. In order toexplore whether the large spread in Li abundances observed in giants canbe interpreted in terms of mass, moderately high resolution CCD spectraof the Li I line at 6707.8 Ä have been obtained in 65 subgiants,giants and supergiants and the lithium abundances derived. Theirabsolute magnitudes have been estimated from the Hipparcos data.Absolute magnitudes have also been determined for another 802 starswhose lithium abundances are already known from the availableliterature. All these stars have been plotted on the HR diagram andcompared with the theoretical evolutionary tracks of Bressan et al.(1993) with initial masses ranging from 1 M_sun to 9 M_sun for achemical composition typical of the solar neighbourhood: X=0.70, Y=0.28,Z=0.02. The stars of low mass of this sample, (<2M_sun), span a widerange in evolution (unmixed warm subgiants and mixed giants) andtherefore, show a correspondingly wide range of Li abundances, perhapsreminiscent of the large range in abundances observed on the mainsequence. The spread is further augmented by the effects of increasingdilution and mixing as the stars evolve to the right and up the redgiant branch. Higher mass stars show a different behaviour. Many of thegiants of masses between 2.5 and 4.0 M_sun observed in the present studyhave Li abundances close to what is predicted by the standard stellarmodels. On the other hand, there are several high mass giants (>2.5M_sun) cooler than Teff = 5000 K with Li abundances as low asthose of low mass stars of similar effective temperature. There must beparameters other than mass and evolutionary status, as implied by thestandard evolution model of a star, that control its Li abundance.
|The central depth of the Ca II triplet lines as a discriminant of chromospheric activity in late type stars|
|The Infrared Spectral Classification of Oxygen-rich Dust Shells|
This paper presents infrared spectral classifications for a flux-limitedsample of 635 optically identified oxygen-rich variables includingsupergiants and sources on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Severalclasses of spectra from oxygen-rich dust exist, and these can bearranged in a smoothly varying sequence of spectral shapes known as thesilicate dust sequence. Classification based on this sequence revealsseveral dependencies of the dust emission on the properties of thecentral star. Nearly all S stars show broad emission features fromalumina dust, while most of the supergiants exhibit classic featuresfrom amorphous silicate dust. Mira variables with symmetric light curvesgenerally show broad alumina emission, while those with more asymmetriclight curves show classic silicate emission. These differences may arisefrom differences in the photospheric C/O ratio.
|Chromospheric activity in cool stars and the lithium abundance|
A detailed analysis of the Ca II triplet lines lkern -4.1ptlower2ptchar19 kern -0.8ptambdalkern -4.1ptlower2pt char19 kern -0.8ptambda8498,8542, 8662 in 146 cool stars of all luminosities spanning a large rangein metallicity has revealed that stars with similar temperature,luminosity and metallicity have different Ca II central depths due todifferent degrees of their chromospheric activity. Based on this idea,14 stars in the sample have been identified as chromospherically moreactive than their counterparts with similar values of atmosphericparameters. In order to explore the interdependence betweenchromospheric activity, age and lithium abundance, CCD echelle spectraof the Li I line at 6707.8 Angstroms have been obtained at a spectralresolution of 0.35 Angstroms in these 14 active stars, 18 relativelyinactive stars and another 17 stars randomly selected from the abovesample. The analysis shows that although a few of the active stars areLi-rich, there does not exist a one-to-one correlation between Liabundance and chromospheric activity. There is almost an equal number ofinactive stars which are Li rich. Otherwise, lithium depletions arelarge and there is a large spread in Li abundances in both active andinactive stars especially among giants and supergiants. For most ofthem, the abundance log N(Li) lies roughly between -0.3 to +0.7. Asimilar large range in Li abundances is found for giants not selected onthe basis of chromospheric activity. The above observations suggestthere are parameters besides the activity related ones controlling thelithium abundance in these stars.
|Quantitative spectral classification of galactic disc K-M stars from spectrophotometric measurements|
New spectral observations for 47 southern galactic red supergiantsobtained with the new RUBIKON spectrophotometer (developed at theAstronomisches Institut der Ruhr-Universitat Bochum) at the Bochum 61-cmtelescope on La Silla are presented. The spectra range from 4800 to 7700A and their resolution is 10 A. The mean error of absolute fluxes is0.028 mag and that of relative fluxes 0.021 mag. The spectra will beavailable at the Strasbourg Stellar Database (CDS). Together with datataken from recently published spectral catalogues, the new observationshave been used to define spectral indices as measures of the strengthsof the following features: Fe i+TiOalpha_1, Mgb+TiOalpha_0,NaD+TiOgamma'_1, TiOgamma'_0 and TiOgamma_1 systems. The indices havebeen checked against errors introduced by reductions, interstellarreddening and different resolutions of different spectral catalogues,and have been found to be very insensitive to all these effects.Therefore, different catalogues may be combined without any loss ofaccuracy and homogeneity. The mean error of a single index has beenfound to be 0.011 mag. For stars from K4 to M7, a strong temperaturedependence is found for all indices. For the Fe i+TiO and especially theMgb+TiO features, a strong dependence on luminosity has also beenobserved. These indices therefore have been combined to form aluminosity index, while the others together form a spectral index. Thecombined indices have been calibrated in terms of MK data using thestepwise linear regression technique, and may be used for quantitativetwo- dimensional spectral classification of late K- and M-type stars.The mean error of the classification is 0.6 of spectral subtype and 0.8of luminosity class, which is much higher than would be expected fromthe uncertainty of the indices alone (which, e.g., for an M4 giantcorrespond to an uncertainty of 0.1 of spectral subtype and 0.3 ofluminosity class). This may be explained by the uncertainty of theoriginal MK classifications and the variability of some programme stars.
|Classification and Identification of IRAS Sources with Low-Resolution Spectra|
IRAS low-resolution spectra were extracted for 11,224 IRAS sources.These spectra were classified into astrophysical classes, based on thepresence of emission and absorption features and on the shape of thecontinuum. Counterparts of these IRAS sources in existing optical andinfrared catalogs are identified, and their optical spectral types arelisted if they are known. The correlations between thephotospheric/optical and circumstellar/infrared classification arediscussed.
|A catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations: 1996 edition|
A fifth Edition of the Catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations is presentedherewith. It contains 5946 determinations for 3247 stars, including 751stars in 84 associations, clusters or galaxies. The literature iscomplete up to December 1995. The 700 bibliographical referencescorrespond to [Fe/H] determinations obtained from high resolutionspectroscopic observations and detailed analyses, most of them carriedout with the help of model-atmospheres. The Catalogue is made up ofthree formatted files: File 1: field stars, File 2: stars in galacticassociations and clusters, and stars in SMC, LMC, M33, File 3: numberedlist of bibliographical references The three files are only available inelectronic form at the Centre de Donnees Stellaires in Strasbourg, viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (18.104.22.168), or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Quantitative spectral classification based on photoelectric spectrum scanner measurements of F-K stars.|
New criteria of quantitative spectral classification have beenintroduced and the method of stepwise linear regression to thesecriteria for quantitative spectral classification of F-K stars has beenapplied to the Bochum photoelectric spectra.
|The HI distribution in the environment of the WR star HD 50896|
The neutral matter distribution from the interstellar medium (ISM)located in the vicinity of the galactic Wolf-Rayet (WR) star HD 50896has been examined by means of HI 21-cm line observations obtained withboth low [half-power beamwidth (HPBW)~=34 arcmin] and intermediate(HPBW~=9 arcmin) angular resolution. The most interesting discovery is ahuge ovoidal HI minimum spanning the velocity range +1.5 to +10.0 kms^-1, created, very likely, by the joint action of the progenitor of HD50896 and the WR itself. Inside this cavity, two minima are clearlydiscernible. The WR star is offset with respect to either thegeometrical centre of the main HI void or the inner HI minima. Aphysical link between S308, the ring nebula associated with HD 50896,and one of the HI minima is suggested by our data. A kinematicaldistance of ~1 kpc for HD 50896 is derived based on the radial velocityof the HI cavity. The dual HI minimum geometry observed inside the mainHI cavity, a feature also seen in the HI distribution of the ISM locatedclose to other galactic WR stars, may be a consequence of theinteraction process itself. The ovoidal shape of the main cavity cannotbe explained within the framework of the standard interstellar bubbletheory. Elongated bubbles may result when the large-scale galacticmagnetic field is taken into account.
|Detection of red supergiant stars on the colour-colour diagrams in the system UBVRI.|
|Hybrid stars and the reality of "dividing lines" among G to K bright giants and supergiants.|
We present results of pointed ROSAT PSPC observations of 15 hybridstars/candidates, which have been analyzed in a homogenous way. 7 ofthese stars were observed in X-rays for the first time. 12 out of 15hybrid stars have been detected as X-ray sources, some of them close tothe detection limit. We conclude that essentially all hybrid stars asdefined by the simultaneous presence of transition region line emissionand cool stellar winds are X-ray sources if exposed sufficiently deep.The X-ray luminosities of hybrid stars cover a range between 2x10^27^and ~10^30^erg/s. Their X-ray surface fluxes can be as low as =~20erg/cm^2^/s and thus considerably lower than those of normal luminosityclass (LC) III giants. X-ray spectra of hybrid stars tend to be harderthan that of normal LC III giants, moreover, the X-ray brightest starshave the hardest spectra. We find that for K II giants the normalizedX-ray flux versus C IV flux obeys a power law with an exponent a=2.9,steeper than among normal giants (1.5). Hybrid K II stars are X-rayunderluminous by a factor of 5 to 20 compared to LC III giants at thesame level of normalized CIV flux f_CIV_/f_bol_; hybrid G supergiantsare even more X-ray deficient. We reanalyze the CaII wind dividing lineand find it vertical at B-V=1.45 for LC III giants. It is nearlyhorizontal between B-V=1.45 and 1.0 (at M_bol_=~-2...-3), and not welldefined for supergiants with B-V<1.0. We therefore suggest thatpossibly all LC II and Ib G and K giants are hybrid stars and that the"dividing line" concept in its simplest form is not valid for G/K giantsbrighter than M_bol_=~-2. Hybrid stars are supposed to be evolvedintermediate mass stars and their coronal activity may in principle bedetermined by the individual history of each star.
|An Infrared Color-Magnitude Relationship|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995AJ....110.2910H&db_key=AST
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|Radio continuum emission from stars: a catalogue update.|
An updated version of my catalogue of radio stars is presented. Somestatistics and availability are discussed.
|Metal enrichment in elliptical galaxies and globular clusters through the study of iron and H-Beta spectral indices|
Chemical evolution of elliptical galaxies and globular clusters isaddressed through a combined study of the iron indices at 5270 and 5335A, and of the H-Beta line strength. The observational database of 74standard stars (both dwarfs and giants) referred to in a previous paper(Buzzoni et al. (1992)) complemented with the data of Faber et al.(1985) and Gorgas et al. (1993) allowed us to explore here Fe and H-Betaindex dependence on stellar temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Thederived fitting functions were then included into Buzzoni's (1989) codefor population synthesis in order to derive expected integrated indicesfor simple stellar populations and compare with observations. Partitionof metals in the current chemical mix of galaxies and globulars has beenconstrained supporting the claim that light alpha elements might beenhanced in the globular cluster metal-poor population. An alternativeconclusion resting on the standard framework with (alpha/Fe) = 0 wouldrequire a systematically larger age, about 18-20 Gyr. Iron and magnesiumin ellipticals are found in average solar but a systematic trend of(Mg/Fe) vs global metallicity does exist with iron more deficient withrespect to magnesium at high Z. We conclude that this effect mightindicate that Fe abundance per unit mass in the galaxies is constant(suggesting a constant rate per unit mass of SN I events) while lightmetals supplied by SNe II should have been more effectively enrichedwith increasing galactic total mass.
|A CaII and MgII luminosity/emission-width data base.|
The so-called Wilson-Bappu relationship (hereinafter W-B) is anempirical linear relation established in 1957. Formally simple, thisrelation links two observable parameters of a star: the CaII K line coreemission width with the absolute magnitude of the star havingchromospheric activity. Other Luminosity/Emission-width relationshipswere established on the basis of other chromospheric lines like MgII(2795.5A and 2802.7A) and Lyα (1215.9A). All these resonance linesare used as a diagnostic of physical properties of stellarchromospheres. We have reanalysed all the available data connected withthe CaII K and the MgII k line widths in the literature from 1957 untiltoday to be able to prepare a database containing all the essentialinformation needed to study and to understand empirical stellar activityrelationships.
|The CA II triplet lines in cool stars|
Observations of the infrared triplet lines of ionized calcium arepresented for 91 stars brighter than m_v_=+7.0 in the spectral rangeF8-M4 of all luminosity classes and over a range of metallicities [Fe/H]from -0.65 to +0.60. The above spectra have been obtained at a spectralresolution of 0.4 A with a coude echelle spectrograph using the ThomsonCCD as the detector. This study has been undertaken primarily toinvestigate the dependence of the Ca II triplet strengths over the broadrange of atmospheric parameters like luminosity, temperature andmetallicity. The Ca II triplet lines are a powerful diagnostic of thestellar populations in galaxies because of their sensitivity to theabove parameters. Our detailed analysis indicates a strong correlationbetween the equivalent width of the Ca II triplet lines and surfacegravity, much stronger in metal rich stars than in metal poor stars. TheCa II equivalent widths are fairly insensitive to temperature over therange of luminosity covered. However, they are found to be quitesensitive to metallicity, more conspicuously in supergiants than ingiants and dwarfs. Observations are compared with recent theoreticalcalculations of these lines in NLTE atmospheres.
|Radio emission from stars: A survey at 250 GHz|
We have used the IRAM 30 m-telescope together with the Max PlanckInstitute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR) bolometer to survey nearly 270stars of different types for 250 GHz continuum emission. We comparethese data with their low frequency (cm-range) properties. Early typestars show very often a deviation from the uniformly expanding windmodel which we tentatively attribute to temperature and/or densityfluctuations in their deeper atmospheric layers. For WR stars thisdeviation seems to depend on the effective temperature. Pre-mainsequence stars usually seem to be surrounded by a shell of warm dustmaking a substantial contribution to the 250 GHz flux density value. Wehave found especially for nearby giants and supergiants that a layer atthe transition from photosphere to chromosphere emits ample 250 GHzradiation. We show that the present data can still be explained by asimple uniformly illuminated disk model with the known stellar radius.Optically variable stars are not very strong emitters at 250 GHz. Wepreferentially detected the more exotic ones, a few Beta Lyr-type andsymbiotic stars. Comments on many individual objects are given in theappropriate sections.
|CCD observations of the H-alpha line in late G and K supergiants and their interpretation|
CCD echelle spectra of the H-alpha line at 6563 A have been obtained fora sample of 30 G and K supergiants with a spectral resolution of about0.24 A. The data clearly indicate that the observed H-alpha profile is adeep absorption, implying large optical depths in the chromosphere.Also, the line cores are blueshifted in all the stars which suggests thechromospheres are expanding outward. Detailed radiative transfercalculations of H-alpha have been carried out in a spherically symmetricatmosphere with outward-positive velocity and temperature gradients,including explicitly the effects of ionization. The H-alpha lineprofiles have been computed for a wide range of parameters in order toreproduce the observed features of the line. Within the framework of ourmodel, the calculations reinforce the idea that the nonthermalvelocities have to be as large as 25-30 km/s to explain the large widthsof the observed profiles. The rates of mass outflow have been calculatedto lie in the range 10 exp -8 to 10 exp -9 solar mass/yr.
|An infrared study of three Wolf-Rayet ring nebulae|
The IRAS colors of the Rolf-Rayet bubble RCW 58 surrounding HD 96548 arestudied by analyzing the IRAS survey data with the Groningen ExportableHigh-Resolution Analysis system and by using the Chopped PhotometricChannel high-resolution imaging at 50 microns. The IRAS fluxes of thesenebulae at 25, 60, and 100 microns arise from dust emission rather thanfrom atomic emission lines. Because of the low 12-micron fluxes from thebubbles, the emission is calculated on the basis of continuum radiationfrom dust, rather than emission from the 'unidentified infrared bands'and continuum associated with them. RCW 58 has an uncertain F(100microns) flux. A simple MRN grain mixture can fit both the R25 and R60ratios, but the required radiation energy density (100 eV/cu cm) ishigher than would be expected for the mean (44 eV/cu cm). The relativelylarge observed 25-micron fluxes in NGC 6888 and S303 are explained interms of emission from small grains that are transiently heated totemperatures well above 100 K. The derived mass estimates are quitesensitive to the observed fluxes.
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