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The Light Echo around Supernova 2003gd in Messier 74
We confirm the discovery of a light echo around the Type II-plateausupernova 2003gd in Messier 74 (NGC 628), seen in images obtained withthe High Resolution Channel of the Advanced Camera for Surveys on boardthe Hubble Space Telescope (HST) as part of a larger Snapshot program onthe late-time emission from supernovae. The analysis of the echo wepresent suggests that it is due to the SN light pulse scattered by asheet of dust grains located ~113 pc in front of the SN, and that thesegrains are not unlike those assumed to be in the diffuse Galacticinterstellar medium, both in composition and in size distribution. Theecho is less consistent with scattering off carbon-rich grains, and ifanything, the grains may be somewhat more silicate rich than theGalactic dust composition. The echo also appears to be more consistentwith a SN distance closer to 7 Mpc than to 9 Mpc. This further supportsthe conclusion we reached elsewhere that the initial mass for the SNprogenitor was relatively low (~8-9 Msolar). The HST shouldbe used to continue to monitor the echo in several bands, particularlyin the blue, to better constrain its origin.Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble SpaceTelescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI),which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

The SAURON project - VII. Integral-field absorption and emission-line kinematics of 24 spiral galaxy bulges
We present observations of the stellar and gas kinematics for arepresentative sample of 24 Sa galaxies obtained with our custom-builtintegral-field spectrograph SAURON operating on the William HerschelTelescope. The data have been homogeneously reduced and analysed bymeans of a dedicated pipeline. All resulting data cubes were spatiallybinned to a minimum mean signal-to-noise ratio of 60 per spatial andspectral resolution element. Our maps typically cover thebulge-dominated region. We find a significant fraction of kinematicallydecoupled components (12/24), many of them displaying central velocitydispersion minima. They are mostly aligned and co-rotating with the mainbody of the galaxies, and are usually associated with dust discs andrings detected in unsharp-masked images. Almost all the galaxies in thesample (22/24) contain significant amounts of ionized gas which, ingeneral, is accompanied by the presence of dust. The kinematics of theionized gas are consistent with circular rotation in a disc co-rotatingwith respect to the stars. The distribution of mean misalignmentsbetween the stellar and gaseous angular momenta in the sample suggeststhat the gas has an internal origin. The [OIII]/Hβ ratio is usuallyvery low, indicative of current star formation, and shows variousmorphologies (ring-like structures, alignments with dust lanes oramorphous shapes). The star formation rates (SFRs) in the sample arecomparable with that of normal disc galaxies. Low gas velocitydispersion values appear to be linked to regions of intense starformation activity. We interpret this result as stars being formed fromdynamically cold gas in those regions. In the case of NGC5953, the datasuggest that we are witnessing the formation of a kinematicallydecoupled component from cold gas being acquired during the ongoinginteraction with NGC5954.

Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the progenitor sites of six nearby core-collapse supernovae
The search for the progenitors of six core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe)in archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 pre-explosion imaging ispresented. These SNe are 1999an, 1999br, 1999ev, 2000ds, 2000ew and2001B. Post-explosion imaging of the SNe, with the HST ACS/WFC, has beenutilized with the technique of differential astrometry to identify theprogenitor locations on the pre-explosion imaging. SNe 1999br, 1999ev,2000ew and 2001B are recovered in late-time imaging, and estimates ofthe progenitor locations on the pre-explosion imaging, with subpixelaccuracy, have been made. Only the progenitor of the Type II-P SN 1999evhas been recovered, on pre-explosion F555W imaging, at a 4.8σsignificance level. Assuming a red supergiant progenitor, thepre-explosion observation is consistent with MZAMS=15-18Msolar. The progenitors of the other five SNe were belowthe 3σ detection threshold of the pre-explosion observations. Thedetection thresholds were translated to mass limits for the progenitorsby comparison with stellar evolution models. Pre-explosion observationsof the peculiarly faint SN 1999br limit the mass of a red supergiantprogenitor to MZAMS < 12Msolar. Analysis hasbeen extended, from previous studies, to include possible detections ofhigh-Teff, high-mass stars by conducting synthetic photometryof model Wolf-Rayet star spectra. The mass limits for the Type II-P SNe1999an and 1999br are consistent with previously determined mass limitsfor this type of SN. The detection limits for the progenitors of theType Ibc SNe (2000ds, 2000ew and 2001B) do not permit differentiationbetween high-mass Wolf-Rayet progenitors or low-mass progenitors inbinaries.

The Classification of Galaxies: Early History and Ongoing Developments
"You ask what is the use of classification, arrangement,systematization. I answer you; order and simplification are the firststeps toward the mastery of a subject the actual enemy is the unknown."

Hα Imaging of Early-Type Sa-Sab Spiral Galaxies. II. Global Properties
New results, based on one of the most comprehensive Hα imagingsurveys of nearby Sa-Sab spirals completed to date, reveals early-typespirals to be a diverse group of galaxies that span a wide range inmassive star formation rates. While the majority of Sa-Sab galaxies inour sample are forming stars at a modest rate, a significant fraction(~29%) exhibit star formation rates greater than 1 Msolaryr-1, rivaling the most prolifically star-forming late-typespirals. A similar diversity is apparent in the star formation historyof Sa-Sab spirals as measured by their Hα equivalent widths.Consistent with our preliminary results presented in the first paper inthis series, we find giant H II regions [L(Hα)>=1039ergs s-1] in the disks of ~37% of early-type spirals. Wesuspect that recent minor mergers or past interactions are responsiblefor the elevated levels of Hα emission and, perhaps, for thepresence of giant H II regions in these galaxies. Our results, however,are not in total agreement with the Hα study of Kennicutt &Kent, who did not find any early-type spirals with Hα equivalentwidths >14 Å. A close examination of the morphologicalclassification of galaxies, however, suggests that systematicdifferences between the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog and the SecondReference Catalogue may be responsible for the contrasting results.Based on observations obtained with the 3.5 m telescope at Apache PointObservatory (APO) and the 0.9 m telescope at Kitt Peak NationalObservatory (KPNO). The APO 3.5 m telescope is owned and operated by theAstrophysical Research Consortium.

Active and Star-forming Galaxies and Their Supernovae
To investigate the extent to which nuclear starbursts or other nuclearactivity may be connected with enhanced star formation activity in thehost galaxy, we perform a statistical investigation of supernovae (SNe)discovered in host galaxies from four samples: the Markarian galaxiessample, the Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) sample, the north Galactic pole(NGP) sample of active or star-forming galaxies, and the NGP sample ofnormal galaxies. Forty-seven SNe in 41 Mrk galaxies, 10 SNe in six SBSgalaxies, 29 SNe in 26 NGP active or star-forming galaxies, and 29 SNein 26 NGP normal galaxies have been studied. We find that the rate ofSNe, particularly core-collapse (Types Ib/c and II) SNe, is higher inactive or star-forming galaxies in comparison with normal galaxies.Active or star-forming host galaxies of SNe are generally of latermorphological type and have lower luminosity and smaller linear sizethan normal host galaxies of SNe. The radial distribution of SNe inactive and star-forming galaxies shows a higher concentration toward thecenter of the active host galaxy than is the case for normal hostgalaxies, and this effect is more pronounced for core-collapse SNe.Ib/c-type SNe have been discovered only in active and star-forminggalaxies of our samples. About 78% of these SNe are associated with H IIregions or are located very close to the nuclear regions of these activegalaxies, which are in turn hosting AGNs or starburst nuclei. Besidesthese new results, our study also supports the conclusions of severalother earlier papers. We find that Type Ia SNe occur in all galaxytypes, whereas core-collapse SNe of Types Ib/c and II are found only inspiral and irregular galaxies. The radial distribution of Type Ib SNe intheir host galaxies is more centrally concentrated than that of Type IIand Ia SNe. The radial distances of Types Ib/c and II SNe, from thenuclei of their host galaxies, is larger for barred spiral hosts.Core-collapse SNe are concentrated in spiral arms and are often close toor in the H II regions, whereas Type Ia SNe show only a looseassociation with spiral arms and no clear association with H II regions.

Starbursting nuclear CO disks of early-type spiral galaxies
We have initiated the first CO interferometer survey of early-typespiral galaxies (S0-Sab). We observed five early-type spiral galaxieswith HII nuclei (indicating circumnuclear starburst activities). Theseobservations indicate gas masses for the central kiloparsec of 1{-}5%of the dynamical masses. Such low gas mass fractions suggest thatlarge-scale gravitational instability in the gas is unlikely to be thedriving cause for the starburst activities. We estimated Toomre Q valuesand found that these galaxies have Q>1 (mostly >3) within thecentral kiloparsec, indicating that the gas disks are globallygravitationally stable. From the brightness temperatures of the COemission we estimated the area filling factor of the gas disks withinthe central kiloparsec to be about 0.05. This small value indicates theexistence of lumpy structure, i.e. molecular clouds, in theglobally-gravitationally stable disks. The typical surface density ofthe molecular clouds is as high as 3000 {Mȯ} {pc}-2. In the light of these new observations, we reconsiderthe nature of the Toomre Q criterion, and conclude that the Toomre Qparameter from CO observations indicates neither star formation normolecular cloud formation. This argument should be valid not only forthe circumnuclear disks but also for any region in galactic disks. Wetentatively explore an alternative model as an initiating mechanism ofstar formation. Cloud-cloud collisions might account for the active starformation.

Nuclear Stellar Populations in the Infrared Space Observatory Atlas of Bright Spiral Galaxies
To understand the nuclear stellar populations and star formationhistories of the nuclei of spiral galaxies, we have obtained K-bandnuclear spectra for 41 galaxies and H-band spectra for 20 galaxies inthe Infrared Space Observatory's Atlas of Bright Spiral Galaxies. In thevast majority of the subsample (80%), the near-infrared spectra suggestthat evolved red stars completely dominate the nuclear stellarpopulations and that hot young stars are virtually nonexistent. Thesignatures of recent star formation activity are only found in 20% ofthe subsample, even though older red stars still dominate the stellarpopulations in these galaxies. Given the dominance of evolved stars inmost galaxy nuclei and the nature of the emission lines in the galaxieswhere they were detected, we suggest that nuclear star formationproceeds in the form of instantaneous bursts. The stars produced bythese bursts comprise only ~2% of the total nuclear stellar mass inthese galaxies, but we demonstrate how the nuclear stellar populationsof normal spiral galaxies can be built up through a series of thesebursts. The bursts were detected only in Sbc galaxies and later, andboth bars and interactions appeared to be sufficient, but not necessary,triggers for the nuclear star formation activity. The vast majority ofgalaxies with nuclear star formation were classified as H II galaxies.With one exception, LINERs and transition objects were dominated byolder red stars, which suggested that star formation was not responsiblefor generating these galaxies' optical line emission.

Radio Continuum Emission at 1.4 GHz from KISS Emission-Line Galaxies
We have searched the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimeters(FIRST) and the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) 1.4 GHz radio surveys forsources that are coincident with emission-line galaxy (ELG) candidatesfrom the KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey (KISS). A total of 207of the 2157 KISS ELGs (~10%) in the first two Hα-selected surveylists were found to possess radio detections in FIRST, NVSS, or both.Follow-up spectra exist for all of the radio detections, allowing us todetermine the activity type (star-forming vs. active nucleus) for theentire sample. We explore the properties of the radio-detected KISSgalaxies in order to gain a better insight into the nature ofradio-emitting galaxies in the local universe (z<0.1). No dwarfgalaxies were detected, despite the large numbers of low-luminositygalaxies present in KISS, suggesting that lower mass, lower luminosityobjects do not possess strong galaxian-scale magnetic fields. Because ofthe selection technique used for KISS, our radio ELGs represent aquasi-volume-limited sample, which allows us to develop a clearerpicture of the radio galaxy population at low redshift. Nearlytwo-thirds of the KISS radio galaxies are starburst or star-forminggalaxies, which is in stark contrast to the results of flux-limitedradio surveys, which are dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) andelliptical galaxies (i.e., classical radio galaxies). While there aremany AGNs among the KISS radio galaxies, there are no objects with largeradio powers in our local volume. We derive a radio luminosity function(RLF) for the KISS ELGs that agrees very well with previous RLFs thatadequately sample the lower luminosity radio population.

Double-barred galaxies. I. A catalog of barred galaxies with stellar secondary bars and inner disks
I present a catalog of 67 barred galaxies which contain distinct,elliptical stellar structures inside their bars. Fifty of these aredouble-barred galaxies: a small-scale, inner or secondary bar isembedded within a large-scale, outer or primary bar. I providehomogenized measurements of the sizes, ellipticities, and orientationsof both inner and outer bars, along with global parameters for thegalaxies. The other 17 are classified as inner-disk galaxies, where alarge-scale bar harbors an inner elliptical structure which is alignedwith the galaxy's outer disk. Four of the double-barred galaxies alsopossess inner disks, located in between the inner and outer bars. Whilethe inner-disk classification is ad-hoc - and undoubtedly includes someinner bars with chance alignments (five such probable cases areidentified) - there is good evidence that inner disks form astatistically distinct population, and that at least some are indeeddisks rather than bars. In addition, I list 36 galaxies which may bedouble-barred, but for which current observations are ambiguous orincomplete, and another 23 galaxies which have been previously suggestedas potentially being double-barred, but which are probably not. Falsedouble-bar identifications are usually due to features such as nuclearrings and spirals being misclassified as bars; I provide someillustrated examples of how this can happen.A detailed statistical analysis of the general population of double-barand inner-disk galaxies, as represented by this catalog, will bepresented in a companion paper.Tables \ref{tab:measured} and \ref{tab:deproj} are only available inelectronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

Disk-bulge decompositions of spiral galaxies in UBVRI
A sample of 26 bright spiral galaxies (Btot < 12.7) withlow to medium inclination and without a bar was observed with UBVRIfilters. The CAFOS focal reducer camera at the Calar Alto 2.2 mtelescope was used. The surface-brightness distributions were fittedusing a 2-dimensional algorithm with corresponding functions for thedisk- and bulge-structure. For the disks an exponential function wasused, for the bulges a Sérsic Rβ law, was appliedwith the concentration parameter β = 1/n as another fit variable.Correlations of the resulting structural parameters of disks and bulgesin UBVRI are investigated, giving clues to the formation history of thebulges.We confirm that the large and bright bulges of early-type spirals aresimilar to elliptical galaxies. They were probably formed prior to thedisks in a monolithic collapse or via early mergers. Late-type spiralshave tiny and faint bulges with disk-like profiles. These bulges wereprobably formed after the disk in secular evolution processes, e.g. froma disk instability. The comparison of the color indices of correspondingspirals and bulges with population synthesis computations support aboveformation scenarios.Tables 2-4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/415/63

Classifications of the Host Galaxies of Supernovae, Set II
Classifications on the DDO system are given for an additional 231 hostgalaxies of supernovae that have been discovered during the course ofthe Lick Observatory Supernova Search with the Katzman Automatic ImagingTelescope (KAIT). This brings the total number of hosts of supernovae(SNe) discovered (or independently rediscovered) by KAIT, which have sofar been classified on a homogeneous system, to 408. The probabilitythat SNe Ia and SNe II have a different distribution of host-galaxyHubble types is found to be 99.7%. A significant difference is alsofound between the distributions of the host galaxies of SNe Ia and ofSNe Ibc (defined here to include SNe Ib, Ib/c, and Ic). However, nosignificant difference is detected between the frequency distributionsof the host galaxies of SNe II and SNe IIn. This suggests that SNe IInare generally not SNe Ia embedded in circumstellar material that aremasquerading as SNe II. Furthermore, no significant difference is foundbetween the distribution of the Hubble types of the hosts of SNe Ibc andof SNe II. Additionally, SNe II-P and SNe II-L are found to occur amongsimilar stellar populations. The ratio of the number of SNe Ia-pec tonormal SNe Ia appears to be higher in early-type galaxies than it is ingalaxies of later morphological types. This suggests that the ancestorsof SNe Ia-pec may differ systematically in age or composition from theprogenitors of normal SNe Ia. Unexpectedly, five SNe of Types Ib/c, II,and IIn (all of which are thought to have massive progenitors) are foundin host galaxies that are nominally classified as types E and S0.However, in each case the galaxy classification is uncertain, or newlyinspected images show evidence suggesting a later classification. Amongthese five objects, NGC 3720, the host galaxy of SN 2002at, wasapparently misidentified in the Carnegie Atlas of Galaxies.

A Search for Core-Collapse Supernova Progenitors in Hubble Space Telescope Images
Identifying the massive progenitor stars that give rise to core-collapsesupernovae (SNe) is one of the main pursuits of supernova and stellarevolution studies. Using ground-based images of recent, nearby SNeobtained primarily with the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope,astrometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, and archival images fromthe Hubble Space Telescope, we have attempted the direct identificationof the progenitors of 16 Type II and Type Ib/c SNe. We may haveidentified the progenitors of the Type II SNe 1999br in NGC 4900, 1999evin NGC 4274, and 2001du in NGC 1365 as supergiant stars withM0V~-6 mag in all three cases. We may have alsoidentified the progenitors of the Type Ib SNe 2001B in IC 391 and 2001isin NGC 1961 as very luminous supergiants withM0V~-8 to -9 mag, and possibly the progenitor ofthe Type Ic SN 1999bu in NGC 3786 as a supergiant withM0V~-7.5 mag. Additionally, we have recovered atlate times SNe 1999dn in NGC 7714, 2000C in NGC 2415, and 2000ew in NGC3810, although none of these had detectable progenitors on pre-supernovaimages. In fact, for the remaining SNe only limits can be placed on theabsolute magnitude and color (when available) of the progenitor. Thedetected Type II progenitors and limits are consistent with redsupergiants as progenitor stars, although possibly not as red as we hadexpected. Our results for the Type Ib/c SNe do not strongly constraineither Wolf-Rayet stars or massive interacting binary systems asprogenitors. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble SpaceTelescope, obtained from the data archive of the Space Telescope ScienceInstitute, which is operated by the Association of Universities forResearch in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Companions of Bright Barred Shapley-Ames Galaxies
Companion galaxy environment for a subset of 78 bright and nearby barredgalaxies from the Shapley-Ames Catalog is presented. Among the spiralbarred galaxies, there are Seyfert galaxies, galaxies with circumnuclearstructures, galaxies not associated with any large-scale galaxy cloudstructure, galaxies with peculiar disk morphology (crooked arms), andgalaxies with normal disk morphology; the list includes all Hubbletypes. The companion galaxy list includes the number of companiongalaxies within 20 diameters, their Hubble type, and projectedseparation distance. In addition, the companion environment was searchedfor four known active spiral galaxies, three of them are Seyfertgalaxies, namely, NGC 1068, NGC 1097, and NGC 5548, and one is astarburst galaxy, M82. Among the results obtained, it is noted that theonly spiral barred galaxy classified as Seyfert 1 in our list has nocompanions within a projected distance of 20 diameters; six out of 10Seyfert 2 bar galaxies have no companions within 10 diameters, six outof 10 Seyfert 2 galaxies have one or more companions at projectedseparation distances between 10 and 20 diameters; six out of 12 galaxieswith circumnuclear structures have two or more companions within 20diameters.

Spectroscopy of KISS Emission-Line Galaxy Candidates. I. MDM Observations
Spectroscopic observations for 351 emission-line galaxy candidates fromthe KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey (KISS) have been obtainedusing the MDM Observatory 2.4 m telescope on Kitt Peak. KISS is anongoing wide-field objective-prism survey for extragalacticemission-line objects, which has cataloged over 2200 emission-linegalaxy (ELG) candidates to date. Spectroscopic follow-up observationsare being carried out to study the characteristics of the surveyobjects. The observational data presented here include redshifts,reddening estimates, line equivalent widths, Hα line fluxes, andemission-line ratios. The galaxies have been classified based on theiremission-line characteristics. The procedure for selecting the ELGcandidates in KISS is found to be very reliable: 95% of the candidatesin this sample are verified to have emission lines. A comparison ofobjective-prism survey data-redshifts, Hα line fluxes, andequivalent widths-with the long-slit measurements shows good overallagreement.

The 2MASS Large Galaxy Atlas
We present the largest galaxies as seen in the near-infrared (1-2μm), imaged with the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), ranging inangular size from 1' to 1.5d. We highlight the 100 largest in thesample. The galaxies span all Hubble morphological types, includingelliptical galaxies, normal and barred spirals, and dwarf and peculiarclasses. The 2MASS Large Galaxy Atlas provides the necessary sensitivityand angular resolution to examine in detail morphologies in thenear-infrared, which may be radically different from those in theoptical. Internal structures such as spirals, bulges, warps, rings,bars, and star formation regions are resolved by 2MASS. In addition tolarge mosaic images, the atlas includes astrometric, photometric, andshape global measurements for each galaxy. A comparison of fundamentalmeasures (e.g., surface brightness, Hubble type) is carried out for thesample and compared with the Third Reference Catalogue. We furthershowcase NGC 253 and M51 (NGC 5194/5195) to demonstrate the quality anddepth of the data. The atlas represents the first uniform, all-sky,dust-penetrated view of galaxies of every type, as seen in thenear-infrared wavelength window that is most sensitive to the dominantmass component of galaxies. The images and catalogs are availablethrough the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database and Infrared ScienceArchive and are part of the 2MASS Extended Source Catalog.

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

Bar strengths in spiral galaxies estimated from 2MASS images
Non-axisymmetric forces are presented for a sample of 107 spiralgalaxies, of which 31 are barred (SB) and 53 show nuclear activity. As adata base we use JHK images from the 2 Micron All-sky Survey, and thenon-axisymmetries are characterized by the ratio of the tangential forceto the mean axisymmetric radial force field, following Buta & Block.Bar strengths have an important role in many extragalactic problems andtherefore it is important to verify that the different numerical methodsapplied for calculating the forces give mutually consistent results. Weapply both direct Cartesian integration and a polar grid integrationutilizing a limited number of azimuthal Fourier components of density.We find that the bar strength is independent of the method used toevaluate the gravitational potential. However, because of thedistance-dependent smoothing by Fourier decomposition, the polar methodis more suitable for weak and noisy images. The largest source ofuncertainty in the derived bar strength appears to be the uncertainty inthe vertical scaleheight, which is difficult to measure directly formost galaxies. On the other hand, the derived bar strength is ratherinsensitive to the possible gradient in the vertical scaleheight of thedisc or to the exact model of the vertical density distribution,provided that the same effective vertical dispersion is assumed in allmodels. In comparison with the pioneering study by Buta & Block, thebar strength estimate is improved here by taking into account thedependence of the vertical scaleheight on the Hubble type: we find thatfor thin discs bar strengths are stronger than for thick discs by anamount that may correspond to as much as one bar strength class. Weconfirm the previous result by Buta and co-workers showing that thedispersion in bar strength is large among all the de Vaucouleurs opticalbar classes. In the near-infrared 40 per cent of the galaxies in oursample have bars (showing constant phases in the m= 2 Fourier amplitudesin the bar region), while in the optical band one-third of these barsare obscured by dust. Significant non-axisymmetric forces can also beinduced by the spiral arms, generally in the outer parts of the galacticdiscs, which may have important implications on galaxy evolution.Possible biases of the selected sample are also studied: we find thatthe number of bars identified drops rapidly when the inclination of thegalactic disc is larger than 50°. A similar bias is found in theThird Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies, which might be of interestwhen comparing bar frequencies at high and low redshifts.

The faint end of the galaxy luminosity function
We present and discuss optical measurements of the faint end of thegalaxy luminosity function down to MR=-10 in five differentlocal environments of varying galaxy density and morphological content.The environments we studied, in order of decreasing galaxy density, arethe Virgo Cluster, the NGC 1407 Group, the Coma I Group, the Leo Groupand the NGC 1023 Group. Our results come from a deep wide-angle surveywith the National Astronomical Observatories of Japan Subaru 8-mTelescope on Mauna Kea and are sensitive down to very faintsurface-brightness levels. Galaxies were identified as group or clustermembers on the basis of their surface brightness and morphology. Thefaintest galaxies in our sample have R~ 22.5. There were thousands offainter galaxies but we cannot distinguish cluster members frombackground galaxies at these faint limits so do not attempt to determinea luminosity function fainter than MR=-1010. In all cases,there are far fewer dwarfs than the numbers of low-mass haloesanticipated by cold dark matter theory. The mean logarithmic slope ofthe luminosity function between MR=-1018 andMR=-1010 is α~=-1.2, far shallower than the cold darkmatter mass function slope of α~=-1.8. We would therefore need tobe missing about 90 per cent of the dwarfs at the faint end of oursample in all the environments we study to achieve consistency with CDMtheory. It is unlikely that such large numbers of dwarfs are missedbecause (i) the data are deep enough that we are sensitive to very lowsurface brightness galaxies, and (ii) the seeing is good enough that wecan have some confidence in our ability to distinguish high surfacebrightness dwarfs from background galaxies brighter than R= 22.5. Onecaveat is that we miss compact members taken to be background galaxies,but such objects (like M32) are thought to be rare.

The SAURON project - II. Sample and early results
Early results are reported from the SAURON survey of the kinematics andstellar populations of a representative sample of nearby E, S0 and Sagalaxies. The survey is aimed at determining the intrinsic shape of thegalaxies, their orbital structure, the mass-to-light ratio as a functionof radius, the age and metallicity of the stellar populations, and thefrequency of kinematically decoupled cores and nuclear black holes. Theconstruction of the representative sample is described, and itsproperties are illustrated. A comparison with long-slit spectroscopicdata establishes that the SAURON measurements are comparable to, orbetter than, the highest-quality determinations. Comparisons arepresented for NGC 3384 and 4365, where stellar velocities and velocitydispersions are determined to a precision of 6kms-1, and theh3 and h4 parameters of the line-of-sight velocitydistribution to a precision of better than 0.02. Extraction of accurategas emission-line intensities, velocities and linewidths from the datacubes is illustrated for NGC 5813. Comparisons with published linestrengths for NGC 3384 and 5813 reveal uncertainties of <~0.1Åon the measurements of the Hβ, Mg b and Fe5270 indices.Integral-field mapping uniquely connects measurements of the kinematicsand stellar populations to the galaxy morphology. The maps presentedhere illustrate the rich stellar kinematics, gaseous kinematics, andline-strength distributions of early-type galaxies. The results includethe discovery of a thin, edge-on, disc in NGC 3623, confirm theaxisymmetric shape of the central region of M32, illustrate the LINERnucleus and surrounding counter-rotating star-forming ring in NGC 7742,and suggest a uniform stellar population in the decoupled core galaxyNGC 5813.

Bar Galaxies and Their Environments
The prints of the Palomar Sky Survey, luminosity classifications, andradial velocities were used to assign all northern Shapley-Ames galaxiesto either (1) field, (2) group, or (3) cluster environments. Thisinformation for 930 galaxies shows no evidence for a dependence of barfrequency on galaxy environment. This suggests that the formation of abar in a disk galaxy is mainly determined by the properties of theparent galaxy, rather than by the characteristics of its environment.

An Infrared Space Observatory Atlas of Bright Spiral Galaxies
In this first paper in a series we present an atlas of infrared imagesand photometry from 1.2 to 180 μm for a sample of bright spiralgalaxies. The atlas galaxies are an optically selected,magnitude-limited sample of 77 spiral and S0 galaxies chosen from theRevised Shapley-Ames Catalog (RSA). The sample is a representativesample of spiral galaxies and includes Seyfert galaxies, LINERs,interacting galaxies, and peculiar galaxies. Using the Infrared SpaceObservatory (ISO), we have obtained 12 μm images and photometry at60, 100, and 180 μm for the galaxies. In addition to its imagingcapabilities, ISO provides substantially better angular resolution thanis available in the IRAS survey, and this permits discrimination betweeninfrared activity in the central regions and global infrared emission inthe disks of these galaxies. These ISO data have been supplemented withJHK imaging using ground-based telescopes. The atlas includes 2 and 12μm images. Following an analysis of the properties of the galaxies,we have compared the mid-infrared and far-infrared ISO photometry withIRAS photometry. The systematic differences we find between the IRASFaint Source Catalog and ISO measurements are directly related to thespatial extent of the ISO fluxes, and we discuss the reliability of IRASFaint Source Catalog total flux densities and flux ratios for nearbygalaxies. In our analysis of the 12 μm morphological features we findthat most but not all galaxies have bright nuclear emission. We find 12μm structures such as rings, spiral arm fragments, knotted spiralarms, and bright sources in the disks that are sometimes brighter thanthe nuclei at mid-infrared wavelengths. These features, which arepresumably associated with extranuclear star formation, are common inthe disks of Sb and later galaxies but are relatively unimportant inS0-Sab galaxies. Based on observations with the Infrared SpaceObservatory (ISO), an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA MemberStates (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, Netherlands, andUnited Kingdom) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.

Redshifts for 2410 Galaxies in the Century Survey Region
The Century Survey strip covers 102 deg2 within the limits8h5<=α<=16h5, 29.0d<=δ<=30.0d, equinoxB1950.0. The strip passes through the Corona Borealis supercluster andthe outer region of the Coma cluster. Within the Century Survey region,we have measured 2410 redshifts that constitute four overlappingcomplete redshift surveys: (1) 1728 galaxies with Kron-CousinsRph<=16.13 covering the entire strip, (2) 507 galaxieswith Rph<=16.4 in right ascension range8h32m<=α<=10h45m, equinox B1950.0, (3) 1251 galaxies withabsorption- and K-corrected RCCDc<=16.2 (where ``c''indicates ``corrected'') covering the right ascension range8h5<=α<=13h5, equinox B1950.0, and (4) 1255 galaxieswith absorption- and K-corrected VCCDc<=16.7 also coveringthe right ascension range 8h5<=α<=13h5, equinoxB1950.0. All these redshift samples are more than 98% complete to thespecified magnitude limit. We derived samples 1 and 2 from scans of thePOSS1 red (E) plates calibrated with CCD photometry. We derived samples3 and 4 from deep V and R CCD images covering the entire region. Weinclude coarse morphological types for all the galaxies in sample 1. Thedistribution of (V-R)CCD for each type correspondsappropriately with the classification. Work reported here is basedpartly on observations obtained at the Michigan-Dartmouth-MITObservatory.

The Frequency of Active and Quiescent Galaxies with Companions: Implications for the Feeding of the Nucleus
We analyze the idea that nuclear activity, either active galactic nuclei(AGNs) or star formation, can be triggered by interactions by studyingthe percentage of active, H II, and quiescent galaxies with companions.Our sample was selected from the Palomar survey and avoids selectionbiases faced by previous studies. This sample was split into fivedifferent groups, Seyfert galaxies, LINERs, transition galaxies, H IIgalaxies, and absorption-line galaxies. The comparison between the localgalaxy density distributions of the different groups showed that in mostcases there is no statistically significant difference among galaxies ofdifferent activity types, with the exception that absorption-linegalaxies are seen in higher density environments, since most of them arein the Virgo Cluster. The comparison of the percentage of galaxies withnearby companions showed that there is a higher percentage of LINERs,transition galaxies, and absorption-line galaxies with companions thanSeyfert and H II galaxies. However, we find that when we consider onlygalaxies of similar morphological types (elliptical or spiral), there isno difference in the percentage of galaxies with companions amongdifferent activity types, indicating that the former result was due tothe morphology-density effect. In addition, only small differences arefound when we consider galaxies with similar Hα luminosities. Thecomparison between H II galaxies of different Hα luminositiesshows that there is a significantly higher percentage of galaxies withcompanions among H II galaxies with L(Hα)>1039 ergss-1 than among those with L(Hα)<=1039ergs s-1, indicating that interactions increase the amount ofcircumnuclear star formation, in agreement with previous results. Thefact that we find that galaxies of different activity types have thesame percentage of companions suggests that interactions betweengalaxies is not a necessary condition to trigger the nuclear activity inAGNs. We compare our results with previous ones and discuss theirimplications.

The KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey. II. Hα-selected Survey List 1
The KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey (KISS) is a newobjective-prism survey for extragalactic emission-line objects. Itcombines many of the features of previous slitless spectroscopic surveyswith the advantages of modern CCD detectors and is the first purelydigital objective-prism survey for emission-line galaxies. Here wepresent the first list of emission-line galaxy candidates selected fromour red spectral data, which cover the spectral range 6400 to 7200Å. In most cases, the detected emission line is Hα. Thecurrent survey list covers a 1°-wide strip located atδ=29°30' (B1950.0) and spanning the right ascension range12h15m to 17h0m. An area of62.2 deg2 is covered. A total of 1128 candidate emission-lineobjects have been selected for inclusion in the survey list (18.1deg-2). We tabulate accurate coordinates and photometry foreach source, as well as estimates of the redshift and emission-line fluxand equivalent width based on measurements of the digitalobjective-prism spectra. The properties of the KISS emission-linegalaxies are examined using the available observational data.

IAUC 7344 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.

The first seven UK supernova discoveries
This paper outlines the early history of amateur patrolling forsupernovae from the United Kingdom, describes the methods employed bythe patrollers, and provides a detailed description in the words of theobservers of the first seven successful discoveries, made between 1996October and 1998 April.

The UK Nova/Supernova Patrol-The First 25 Years
The history, accomplishments, and activities of the UK Nova/SupernovaPatrol are described.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Coma Berenices
Right ascension:12h19m50.50s
Aparent dimensions:5.248′ × 2.239′

Catalogs and designations:
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NGC 2000.0NGC 4274

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