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Dwarf galaxies in the dynamically evolved NGC 1407 Group
The NGC 1407 Group stands out among nearby structures by its propertiesthat suggest it is massive and evolved. It shares properties withentities that have been called fossil groups: the 1.4mdifferential between the dominant elliptical galaxy and the secondbrightest galaxy comes close to satisfying the definition that has beenused to define the fossil class. There are few intermediate-luminositygalaxies, but a large number of dwarfs in the group. We estimate thereare 250 group members to the depth of our survey. The slope of the faintend of the luminosity function (reaching MR = -12) is α= -1.35. Velocities for 35 galaxies demonstrate that this group with onedominant galaxy has a mass of 7 × 1013Msolarand M/LR = 340Msolar/Lsolar. Twogalaxies in close proximity to NGC 1407 have very large blueshifts. Themost notable is the second brightest galaxy, NGC 1400, with a velocityof -1072 km s-1 with respect to the group mean. We report thedetection of X-ray emission from this galaxy and from the group.

A fossil galaxy cluster: an X-ray and optical study of RX J1416.4+2315
We present a detailed X-ray and optical study of a distant fossil systemRX J1416.4+2315(z ~ 0.137), combining Chandra and XMM-Newtonobservations, optical photometry and spectroscopy. X-ray emitting hotgas imaged by both the Chandra and XMM-Newton shows a globally relaxedspatial distribution, supporting the idea that fossil groups are oldgalaxy systems with no recent mergers. However, the diffuse X-rayemission shows signs of asymmetries in the core of the system. With amean gas temperature of ~4.0 keV and total gravitational mass of 3.1× 1014Msolar, within the virial radius, thisis better described as a fossil galaxy cluster rather than a fossilgroup. The temperature profile shows no sign of a significant coolercore despite a cooling time dropping to 5 Gyr within the resolved core.We find a mass concentration parameter c200 ~ 11 which isrelatively high for a cluster of this mass, indicative of an earlyformation epoch.Using the spectroscopically identified cluster members, we present thegalaxy luminosity function for this fossil system. We measure thevelocity dispersion of the galaxies to be ~700 km s-1 basedon 18 confirmed members. The dynamical mass is nearly twice the totalgravitational mass derived from the X-ray analysis. The measured R-bandmass-to-light ratio, within the virial radius, is ~440Msolar/Lsolar which is not unusual for clusters ofgalaxies. The central giant elliptical galaxy has discy isophotes andspectral features typical of elliptical galaxies.

A Chandra View of Dark Matter in Early-Type Galaxies
We present a Chandra study of mass profiles in seven ellipticalgalaxies, of which three have galaxy-scale and four have group-scalehalos, demarcated at 1013 Msolar. These representthe best available data for nearby objects with comparable X-rayluminosities. We measure approximately flat mass-to-light (M/L) profileswithin an optical half-light radius (Reff), rising by anorder of magnitude at ~10 Reff, which confirms the presenceof dark matter (DM). The data indicate hydrostatic equilibrium, which isalso supported by agreement with studies of stellar kinematics inelliptical galaxies. The data are well fitted by a model comprising anNFW DM profile and a baryonic component following the optical light. Thedistribution of DM halo concentration parameters (c) versusMvir agrees with ΛCDM predictions and our observationsof bright groups. Concentrations are slightly higher than expected,which is most likely a selection effect. Omitting the stellar massdrastically increases c, possibly explaining large concentrations foundby some past observers. The stellar M/LK agree withpopulation synthesis models, assuming a Kroupa IMF. Allowing adiabaticcompression (AC) of the DM halo by baryons made M/L more discrepant,casting some doubt on AC. Our best-fitting models imply total baryonfractions ~0.04-0.09, consistent with models of galaxy formationincorporating strong feedback. The groups exhibit positive temperaturegradients, consistent with the ``universal'' profiles found in othergroups and clusters, whereas the galaxies have negative gradients,suggesting a change in the evolutionary history of the systems aroundMvir~=1013 Msolar.

The Luminosity Function of the Fossil Group RX J1552.2+2013
We determine the first fossil group luminosity function based onspectroscopy of the member galaxies. The fossil group RX J1552.2+2013has 36 confirmed members, is at a mean redshift of 0.136, and has avelocity dispersion of 623 km s-1 (or 797 km s-1if four emission-line galaxies in the outskirts of the velocitydistribution are included). The luminosity function of RX J1552.2+2013,measured within the inner region of the system (~1/3Rvir) inthe range -23.5

On the X-ray, optical emission line and black hole mass properties of local Seyfert galaxies
We investigate the relation between X-ray nuclear emission, opticalemission line luminosities and black hole masses for a sample of 47Seyfert galaxies. The sample, which has been selected from the Palomaroptical spectroscopic survey of nearby galaxies (Ho et al. 1997a, ApJS,112, 315), covers a wide range of nuclear powers, from L2-10keV ~ 1043 erg/s down to very low luminosities(L2-10 keV ~ 1038 erg/s). Best available data fromChandra, XMM-Newton and, in a few cases, ASCA observations have beenconsidered. Thanks to the good spatial resolution available from theseobservations and a proper modeling of the various spectral components,it has been possible to obtain accurate nuclear X-ray luminosities notcontaminated by off-nuclear sources and/or diffuse emission. X-rayluminosities have then been corrected taking into account the likelycandidate Compton thick sources, which are a high fraction (>30%)among type 2 Seyferts in our sample. The main result of this study isthat we confirm strong linear correlations between 2-10 keV,[OIII]λ5007, Hα luminosities which show the same slope asquasars and luminous Seyfert galaxies, independent of the level ofnuclear activity displayed. Moreover, despite the wide range ofEddington ratios (L/L_Edd) tested here (six orders of magnitude, from0.1 down to ~10-7), no correlation is found between the X-rayor optical emission line luminosities and the black hole mass. Ourresults suggest that Seyfert nuclei in our sample are consistent withbeing a scaled-down version of more luminous AGN.

The stellar populations of low-luminosity active galactic nuclei - III. Spatially resolved spectral properties
In a recently completed survey of the stellar population properties oflow-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) and LINER/HIItransition objects (TOs), we have identified a numerous class ofgalactic nuclei which stand out because of their conspicuous108-9 yr populations, traced by high-order Balmer absorptionlines and other stellar indices. These objects are called `young-TOs',because they all have TO-like emission-line ratios. In this paper weextend this previous work, which concentrated on the nuclear properties,by investigating the radial variations of spectral properties inlow-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). Our analysis is based onhigh signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) long-slit spectra in the 3500-5500Å interval for a sample of 47 galaxies. The data probe distancesof typically up to 850 pc from the nucleus with a resolution of ~100 pc(~1 arcsec) and S/N ~ 30. Stellar population gradients are mapped by theradial profiles of absorption-line equivalent widths and continuumcolours along the slit. These variations are further analysed by meansof a decomposition of each spectrum in terms of template galaxiesrepresentative of very young (<=107 yr), intermediate age(108-9 yr) and old (1010 yr) stellar populations.This study reveals that young-TOs also differ from old-TOs andold-LINERs in terms of the spatial distributions of their stellarpopulations and dust. Specifically, our main findings are as follows.(i) Significant stellar population gradients are found almostexclusively in young-TOs. (ii) The intermediate age population ofyoung-TOs, although heavily concentrated in the nucleus, reachesdistances of up to a few hundred pc from the nucleus. Nevertheless, thehalf width at half-maximum of its brightness profile is more typically100 pc or less. (iii) Objects with predominantly old stellar populationspresent spatially homogeneous spectra, be they LINERs or TOs. (iv)Young-TOs have much more dust in their central regions than otherLLAGNs. (v) The B-band luminosities of the central <~1 Gyr populationin young-TOs are within an order of magnitude of MB=-15,implying masses of the order of ~107-108Msolar. This population was 10-100 times more luminous in itsformation epoch, at which time young massive stars would have completelyoutshone any active nucleus, unless the AGN too was brighter in thepast.

A Fundamental Plane Relation for the X-Ray Gas in Normal Elliptical Galaxies
We report on the discovery of a new correlation between globalparameters of the hot interstellar gas in elliptical galaxies. Wereanalyze archival Chandra data for 30 normal early-type systems,removing the contributions of resolved and unresolved point sources toreveal the X-ray morphology of the hot gas. We determine the half-lightradius, RX, and the mean surface brightness, IX,from the gas surface brightness profiles. A spectral analysis determinesthe temperature, TX, of the gas within 3 optical effectiveradii. We find that the galaxies lie on an X-ray gas fundamental plane(XGFP) of the formTX~R0.28XI0.22X.This is close to, but distinct from, a simple luminosity-temperaturerelation. The intrinsic width of the XGFP is only 0.07 dex, nearlyidentical to that of the stellar (optical) fundamental plane (SFP). Thisis surprising since X-ray gas masses are typically ~10-2 ofthe stellar masses. We show that the XGFP is not a simple consequence ofthe virial theorem or hydrostatic equilibrium and that it is essentiallyindependent of the SFP. The XGFP thus represents a genuinely newconstraint on the hydrodynamical evolution of elliptical galaxies.

The Link between Star Formation and Accretion in LINERs: A Comparison with Other Active Galactic Nucleus Subclasses
We present archival high-resolution X-ray imaging observations of 25nearby LINERs observed by ACIS on board Chandra. This sample builds onour previously published proprietary and archival X-ray observations andincludes the complete set of LINERs with published black hole masses andFIR luminosities that have been observed by Chandra. Of the 82 LINERsobserved by Chandra, 41 (50%) display hard nuclear cores consistent withan AGN. The nuclear 2-10 keV luminosities of these AGN-LINERs range from~2×1038 to ~1×1044 ergss-1. Reinforcing our previous work, we find a significantcorrelation between the Eddington ratio,Lbol/LEdd, and the FIR luminosity,LFIR, as well as the IR brightness ratio,LFIR/LB, in the host galaxy of AGN-LINERs thatextends over 7 orders of magnitude in Lbol/LEdd.Combining our AGN-LINER sample with galaxies from other AGN subclasses,we find that this correlation is reinforced in a sample of 129 AGNs,extending over almost 9 orders of magnitude inLbol/LEdd. Using archival and previously publishedobservations of the 6.2 μm PAH feature from ISO, we find that it isunlikely that dust heating by the AGN dominates the FIR luminosity inour sample of AGNs. Our results may therefore imply a fundamental linkbetween the mass accretion rate (M˙), as measured by the Eddingtonratio, and the star formation rate (SFR), as measured by the FIRluminosity. Apart from the overall correlation, we find that thedifferent AGN subclasses occupy distinct regions in the LFIRand Lbol/LEdd plane. Assuming a constant radiativeefficiency for accretion, our results may imply a variation in theSFR/M˙ ratio as a function of AGN activity level, a result that mayhave significant consequences for our understanding of galaxy formationand black hole growth.

Implications of Halo Inside-Out Growth for the X-Ray Properties of Nearby Galaxy Systems within the Preheating Scenario
We present an entirely analytic model for a preheated, polytropicintergalactic medium in hydrostatic equilibrium within an NFW dark halopotential in which the evolution of the halo structure between majormerger events proceeds inside out by accretion. This model is used toexplain, within a standard ΛCDM cosmogony, the observed X-rayproperties of nearby relaxed, non-cooling flow groups and clusters ofgalaxies. We find that our preferred solution to the equilibriumequations produces scaling relations in excellent agreement withobservations, while simultaneously accounting for the typical structuralcharacteristics of the distribution of the diffuse baryons. In the classof preheating models, ours stands out because it offers a unifieddescription of the intrahalo medium for galaxy systems with total massesabove ~2×1013 Msolar, does not producebaryonic configurations with large isentropic cores, and reproducesfaithfully the observed behavior of the gas entropy at large radii. Allthis is achieved with a moderate level of energy injection of about halfa kilo-electron volt, which can be easily accommodated within the limitsof the total energy released by the most commonly invoked feedbackmechanisms, as well as with a polytropic index of 1.2, consistent withboth many observational determinations and predictions fromhigh-resolution gasdynamical simulations of non-cooling flow clusters.More interestingly, our scheme offers a physical motivation for theadoption of this specific value of the polytropic index, as it is theone that best ensures the conservation after halo virialization of thebalance between the total specific energies of the gas and dark mattercomponents for the full range of masses investigated.

The isolated elliptical NGC 4555 observed with Chandra
We present analysis of a Chandra observation of the elliptical galaxyNGC 4555. The galaxy lies in a very low density environment, eitherisolated from all galaxies of similar mass or on the outskirts of agroup. Despite this, NGC 4555 has a large gaseous halo, extending to~60kpc. We find the mean gas temperature to be ~0.95keV and the Feabundance to be ~0.5Zsolar. We model the surface brightness,temperature and abundance distribution of the halo and use these resultsto estimate parameters such as the entropy and cooling time of the gas,and the total gravitational mass of the galaxy. In contrast to recentresults showing that moderate luminosity ellipticals contain relativelysmall quantities of dark matter, our results show that NGC 4555 has amassive dark halo and large mass-to-light ratio(56.8+34.2-35.8Msolar/LBsolarat 50kpc, 42.7+14.6-21.2 at 5re,1σ errors). We discuss this disparity and consider possiblemechanisms by which galaxies might reduce their dark matter content.

An old galaxy group: Chandra X-ray observations of the nearby fossil group NGC 6482
We present the first detailed X-ray observations, using Chandra, of NGC6482 - the nearest known fossil group. The group is dominated by anoptically luminous giant elliptical galaxy and all other known groupmembers are at least two magnitudes fainter. The global X-ray properties(luminosity, temperature, extent) of NGC 6482 fall within the range ofother groups, but the detailed properties show interesting differences.We derive the gas temperature and total mass profiles for the central 30h-170 kpc (~0.1 r200) using ACISspatially resolved spectroscopy. The unusually highLX/Lopt ratio is found to result from a highcentral gas density. The temperature profile shows a continuous decreaseoutward, dropping to 0.63 of its central value at 0.1r200.The derived total mass profile is strongly centrally peaked, suggestingan early formation epoch. These results support a picture in whichfossil groups are old, giving time for the most massive galaxies to havemerged (via the effects of dynamical friction) to produce a centralgiant elliptical galaxy.Although the cooling time within 0.1r200 is less than aHubble time, no decrease in central temperature is detected. The entropyof the system lies toward the low side of the distribution seen in poorgroups and drops all the way into the centre of the system, reachingvery low values. No isentropic core, such as those predicted in simplepre-heating models, is present. Given the lack of any centraltemperature drop in the system, it seems unlikely that radiative coolingcan be invoked to explain this low central entropy. The lack of anysignature of central cooling is especially striking in a system thatappears to be old and relaxed, and to have a central cooling time<=108 yr. We find that the centrally peaked temperatureprofile is consistent with a steady-state cooling-flow solution with anaccretion rate of 2 Msolar yr-1, given the large PdV work arising from the cuspy mass profile. However, solutionsinvolving distributed or non-steady heating cannot be ruled out.

The Stellar Populations of Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph Observations
We present a study of the stellar populations of low-luminosity activegalactic nuclei (LLAGNs). Our goal is to search for spectroscopicsignatures of young and intermediate-age stars and to investigate theirrelationship with the ionization mechanism in LLAGNs. The method used isbased on the stellar population synthesis of the optical continuum ofthe innermost (20-100 pc) regions in these galaxies. For this purpose,we have collected high spatial resolution optical (2900-5700 Å)STIS spectra of 28 nearby LLAGNs that are available in the Hubble SpaceTelescope archive. The analysis of these data is compared with a similaranalysis also presented here for 51 ground-based spectra of LLAGNs. Ourmain findings are as follows: (1) No features due to Wolf-Rayet starswere convincingly detected in the STIS spectra. (2) Young starscontribute very little to the optical continuum in the ground-basedaperture. However, the fraction of light provided by these stars ishigher than 10% in most of the weak-[O I] ([OI]/Hα<=0.25) LLAGNSTIS spectra. (3) Intermediate-age stars contribute significantly to theoptical continuum of these nuclei. This population is more frequent inobjects with weak than with strong [O I]. Weak-[O I] LLAGNs that haveyoung stars stand out for their intermediate-age population. (4) Most ofthe strong-[O I] LLAGNs have predominantly old stellar population. A fewof these objects also show a featureless continuum that contributessignificantly to the optical continuum. These results suggest that youngand intermediate-age stars do not play a significant role in theionization of LLAGNs with strong [O I]. However, the ionization inweak-[O I] LLAGNs with young and/or intermediate-age populations couldbe due to stellar processes. A comparison of the properties of theseobjects with Seyfert 2 galaxies that harbor a nuclear starburst suggeststhat weak-[O I] LLAGNs are the lower luminosity counterparts of theSeyfert 2 composite nuclei.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555. Based on observations made with the Nordic OpticalTelescope (NOT), operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark,Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio delRoque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica deCanarias.

The Stellar Populations of Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei. I. Ground-based Observations
We present a spectroscopic study of the stellar populations oflow-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). Our main goal is todetermine whether the stars that live in the innermost (100 pc scale)regions of these galaxies are in some way related to the emission-lineproperties, which would imply a link between the stellar population andthe ionization mechanism. High signal-to-noise ratio, ground-basedlong-slit spectra in the 3500-5500 Å interval were collected for60 galaxies: 51 LINERs and LINER/H II transition objects, two starburstgalaxies, and seven nonactive galaxies. In this paper, the first of aseries, we (1) describe the sample; (2) present the nuclear spectra; (3)characterize the stellar populations of LLAGNs by means of an empiricalcomparison with normal galaxies; (4) measure a set of spectral indices,including several absorption-line equivalent widths and colorsindicative of stellar populations; and (5) correlate the stellar indiceswith emission-line ratios that may distinguish between possibleexcitation sources for the gas. Our main findings are as follows: (1)Few LLAGNs have a detectable young (<~107 yr) starburstcomponent, indicating that very massive stars do not contributesignificantly to the optical continuum. In particular, no features dueto Wolf-Rayet stars were convincingly detected. (2) High-order Balmerabsorption lines of H I (HOBLs), on the other hand, are detected in ~40%of LLAGNs. These features, which are strongest in108-109 yr intermediate-age stellar populations,are accompanied by diluted metal absorption lines and bluer colors thanother objects in the sample. (3) These intermediate-age populations arevery common (~50%) in LLAGNs with relatively weak [O I] emission([OI]/Hα<=0.25) but rare (~10%) in LLAGNs with stronger [O I].This is intriguing since LLAGNs with weak [O I] have been previouslyhypothesized to be ``transition objects'' in which both an AGN and youngstars contribute to the emission-line excitation. Massive stars, ifpresent, are completely outshone by intermediate-age and old stars inthe optical. This happens in at least a couple of objects whereindependent UV spectroscopy detects young starbursts not seen in theoptical. (4) Objects with predominantly old stars span the whole rangeof [O I]/Hα values, but (5) sources with significant young and/orintermediate-age populations are nearly all (~90%) weak-[O I] emitters.These new findings suggest a link between the stellar populations andthe gas ionization mechanism. The strong-[O I] objects are most likelytrue LLAGNs, with stellar processes being insignificant. However, theweak-[O I] objects may comprise two populations, one where theionization is dominated by stellar processes and another where it isgoverned by either an AGN or a more even mixture of stellar and AGNprocesses. Possible stellar sources for the ionization include weakstarbursts, supernova remnants, and evolved poststarburst populations.These scenarios are examined and constrained by means of complementaryobservations and detailed modeling of the stellar populations inforthcoming communications.Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operatedon the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway,and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos ofthe Instituto de Astrofísica de Canárias.

Seyfert galaxies in UZC-Compact Groups
We present results concerning the occurrence of Seyfert galaxies in anew automatically selected sample of nearby Compact Groups of galaxies(UZC-CGs). Seventeen Seyferts are found, constituting ˜3% of theUZC-CG galaxy population. CGs hosting and non-hosting a Seyfert memberexhibit no significant differences, except that a relevant number of Sy2is found in unusual CGs, all presenting large velocity dispersion(σ>400 km s-1), many neighbours and a high number ofellipticals. We also find that the fraction of Seyferts in CGs is 3times as large as that among UZC-single-galaxies, and results from anexcess of Sy2s. CG-Seyferts are not more likely than other CG galaxiesto present major interaction patterns, nor to display a bar. Our resultsindirectly support the minor-merging fueling mechanism.

X-ray scaling properties of early-type galaxies
We present an analysis of 39 X-ray luminous early-type galaxies observedwith the ROSAT PSPC. Using multicomponent spectral and spatial fits tothese data, we have measured halo abundance, temperature, luminosity andsurface brightness profile. We compare these measurements to similarresults from galaxy groups and clusters, fitting a number of relationscommonly used in the study of these larger objects. In particular, wefind that the σ-TX relation for our sample is similarto that reported for clusters, consistent with βspec= 1,and that the LX-TX relation has a steep slope(gradient 4.8 +/- 0.7) comparable with that found for galaxy groups.Assuming isothermality, we construct three-dimensional models of ourgalaxies, allowing us to measure gas entropy. We find no correlationbetween gas entropy and system mass, but do find a trend forlow-temperature systems to have reduced gas fractions. We conclude thatthe galaxies in our sample are likely to have developed their haloesthrough galaxy winds, influenced by their surrounding environment.

The Birmingham-CfA cluster scaling project - I. Gas fraction and the M-TX relation
We have assembled a large sample of virialized systems, comprising 66galaxy clusters, groups and elliptical galaxies with high-quality X-raydata. To each system we have fitted analytical profiles describing thegas density and temperature variation with radius, corrected for theeffects of central gas cooling. We present an analysis of the scalingproperties of these systems and focus in this paper on the gasdistribution and M-TX relation. In addition to clusters andgroups, our sample includes two early-type galaxies, carefully selectedto avoid contamination from group or cluster X-ray emission. We comparethe properties of these objects with those of more massive systems andfind evidence for a systematic difference between galaxy-sized haloesand groups of a similar temperature.We derive a mean logarithmic slope of the M-TX relationwithin R200 of 1.84 +/- 0.06, although there is some evidenceof a gradual steepening in the M-TX relation, with decreasingmass. We recover a similar slope using two additional methods ofcalculating the mean temperature. Repeating the analysis with theassumption of isothermality, we find the slope changes only slightly, to1.89 +/- 0.04, but the normalization is increased by 30 per cent.Correspondingly, the mean gas fraction within R200 changesfrom (0.13 +/- 0.01) h-3/270 to (0.11+/- 0.01) h-3/270, for the isothermalcase, with the smaller fractional change reflecting different behaviourbetween hot and cool systems. There is a strong correlation between thegas fraction within 0.3R200 and temperature. This reflectsthe strong (5.8σ) trend between the gas density slope parameter,β, and temperature, which has been found in previous work.These findings are interpreted as evidence for self-similarity breakingfrom galaxy feedback processes, active galactic nuclei heating orpossibly gas cooling. We discuss the implications of our results in thecontext of a hierarchical structure formation scenario.

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

Bar Galaxies and Their Environments
The prints of the Palomar Sky Survey, luminosity classifications, andradial velocities were used to assign all northern Shapley-Ames galaxiesto either (1) field, (2) group, or (3) cluster environments. Thisinformation for 930 galaxies shows no evidence for a dependence of barfrequency on galaxy environment. This suggests that the formation of abar in a disk galaxy is mainly determined by the properties of theparent galaxy, rather than by the characteristics of its environment.

Compact groups in the UZC galaxy sample
Applying an automatic neighbour search algorithm to the 3D UZC galaxycatalogue (Falco et al. \cite{Falco}) we have identified 291 compactgroups (CGs) with radial velocity between 1000 and 10 000 kms-1. The sample is analysed to investigate whether Tripletsdisplay kinematical and morphological characteristics similar to higherorder CGs (Multiplets). It is found that Triplets constitute lowvelocity dispersion structures, have a gas-rich galaxy population andare typically retrieved in sparse environments. Conversely Multipletsshow higher velocity dispersion, include few gas-rich members and aregenerally embedded structures. Evidence hence emerges indicating thatTriplets and Multiplets, though sharing a common scale, correspond todifferent galaxy systems. Triplets are typically field structures whilstMultiplets are mainly subclumps (either temporarily projected orcollapsing) within larger structures. Simulations show that selectioneffects can only partially account for differences, but significantcontamination of Triplets by field galaxy interlopers could eventuallyinduce the observed dependences on multiplicity. Tables 1 and 2 are onlyavailable in electronic at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/391/35

A catalogue and analysis of X-ray luminosities of early-type galaxies
We present a catalogue of X-ray luminosities for 401 early-typegalaxies, of which 136 are based on newly analysed ROSAT PSPC pointedobservations. The remaining luminosities are taken from the literatureand converted to a common energy band, spectral model and distancescale. Using this sample we fit the LX:LB relationfor early-type galaxies and find a best-fit slope for the catalogue of~2.2. We demonstrate the influence of group-dominant galaxies on the fitand present evidence that the relation is not well modelled by a singlepower-law fit. We also derive estimates of the contribution to galaxyX-ray luminosities from discrete-sources and conclude that they provideLdscr/LB~=29.5ergs-1LBsolar-1. Wecompare this result with luminosities from our catalogue. Lastly, weexamine the influence of environment on galaxy X-ray luminosity and onthe form of the LX:LB relation. We conclude thatalthough environment undoubtedly affects the X-ray properties ofindividual galaxies, particularly those in the centres of groups andclusters, it does not change the nature of whole populations.

The Northern ROSAT All-Sky (NORAS) Galaxy Cluster Survey. I. X-Ray Properties of Clusters Detected as Extended X-Ray Sources
In the construction of an X-ray-selected sample of galaxy clusters forcosmological studies, we have assembled a sample of 495 X-ray sourcesfound to show extended X-ray emission in the first processing of theROSAT All-Sky Survey. The sample covers the celestial region withdeclination δ>=0deg and Galactic latitude|bII|>=20deg and comprises sources with a countrate >=0.06 counts s-1 and a source extent likelihood ofL>=7. In an optical follow-up identification program we find 378(76%) of these sources to be clusters of galaxies. It was necessary toreanalyze the sources in this sample with a new X-ray sourcecharacterization technique to provide more precise values for the X-rayflux and source extent than obtained from the standard processing. Thisnew method, termed growth curve analysis (GCA), has the advantage overprevious methods in its ability to be robust, to be easy to model and tointegrate into simulations, to provide diagnostic plots for visualinspection, and to make extensive use of the X-ray data. The sourceparameters obtained assist the source identification and provide moreprecise X-ray fluxes. This reanalysis is based on data from the morerecent second processing of the ROSAT Survey. We present a catalog ofthe cluster sources with the X-ray properties obtained as well as a listof the previously flagged extended sources that are found to have anoncluster counterpart. We discuss the process of source identificationfrom the combination of optical and X-ray data. To investigate theoverall completeness of the cluster sample as a function of the X-rayflux limit, we extend the search for X-ray cluster sources to the dataof the second processing of the ROSAT Survey for the northern sky regionbetween 9h and 14h in right ascension. We includethe search for X-ray emission of known clusters as well as a newinvestigation of extended X-ray sources. In the course of this search wefind X-ray emission from 85 additional Abell clusters and 56 veryprobable cluster candidates among the newly found extended sources. Acomparison of the X-ray cluster number counts of the NORAS sample withthe ROSAT-ESO Flux-limited X-Ray (REFLEX) Cluster Survey results leadsto an estimate of the completeness of the NORAS sample of ROSAT All-SkySurvey (RASS) I extended clusters of about 50% at an X-ray flux ofFX(0.1-2.4 keV)=3×10-12 ergs s-1cm-2. The estimated completeness achieved by adding thesupplementary sample in the study area amounts to about 82% incomparison to REFLEX. The low completeness introduces an uncertainty inthe use of the sample for cosmological statistical studies that will becured with the completion of the continuing Northern ROSAT All-Sky(NORAS) Cluster Survey project. Results reported here are based onobservations made with the Multiple Mirror Telescope, a joint facilityof the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona.

The Nature of Composite LINER/H II Galaxies as Revealed from High-Resolution VLA Observations
A sample of 37 nearby galaxies displaying composite LINER/H II and pureH II spectra was observed with the VLA in an investigation of the natureof their weak radio emission. The resulting radio contour maps overlaidon optical galaxy images are presented here, together with an extensiveliterature list and discussion of the individual galaxies. Radiomorphological data permit assessment of the ``classical active galacticnucleus (AGN)'' contribution to the global activity observed in these``transition'' LINER galaxies. One in five of the latter objects displayclear AGN characteristics: these occur exclusively in bulge-dominatedhosts.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Near-infrared Imaging of Early-Type Galaxies. II. Global Photometric Parameters
An imaging survey of 341 nearby early-type galaxies in the near-infraredK-band atmospheric window (2.2 μm) is described. The galaxiesprimarily reside in 13 nearby rich clusters (85%), while some additionalgalaxies are drawn from loose groups (12%) and the general field (3%).Surface photometry was measured for the entire sample. Detailedcorrections were derived from an extensive grid of seeing-convolvedr^1/4 models and then applied to the isophotal surface brightness,aperture magnitude, and ellipticity profiles. Global photometricparameters were derived from this seeing-corrected photometry. More than25% of the sample has been observed at least twice, and these repeatmeasurements demonstrate the small internal uncertainties on the derivedglobal photometric parameters. Extensive comparisons with aperturephotometry from the literature demonstrate that the photometric systemis fully consistent with other photometric systems to <=0.01 mag andconfirm the estimates of internal random uncertainties. Additionalglobal parameters are drawn from the literature in a homogeneous mannerin order to construct a large catalog of galaxy properties: 95% of thegalaxies have a velocity dispersion, 69% have a Mg_2 index, 80% have anoptical r_eff and μ_eff, 82% have a D_n, and 81% have a derivedoptical-infrared color measurement. This large data set providesexcellent source material for investigations of the physical origins ofthe global scaling relations of early-type galaxies, velocity fields inthe local universe, and comparisons to higher redshift early-typegalaxies.

Near-Infrared Imaging of Early-Type Galaxies. IV. The Physical Origins of the Fundamental Plane Scaling Relations
The physical origins of the fundamental plane (FP) scaling relations areinvestigated using large samples of early-type galaxies observed atoptical and near-infrared wavelengths. The slope a in the FP relationr_eff ~ sigma^a_0^b_eff is shown to increase systematicallywith wavelength from the U band (lambda ~ 0.35 μm) through the K band(lambda ~ 2.2 μm). A distance-independent construction of theobservables is described that provides an accurate measurement of thechange in the FP slope between any pair of bandpasses. The variation ofthe FP slope with wavelength is strong evidence of systematic variationsin stellar content along the elliptical galaxy sequence, but isinsufficient to discriminate between a number of simple models forpossible physical origins of the FP. The intercept of the diagnosticrelationship between log D_K/D_V and log sigma_0 shows no significantdependence on environment within the uncertainties of the Galacticextinction corrections, demonstrating the universality of the stellarpopulation contributions at the level of Delta(V - K) = 0.03 mag to thezero point of the global scaling relations. Several other constraints onthe properties of early-type galaxies-the slope of the Mg_2-sigma_0relation, the slope of the FP in the K band, the effects of stellarpopulation gradients, and the effects of deviations of early-typegalaxies from a dynamically homologous family-are included to constructan empirical, self-consistent model that provides a complete picture ofthe underlying physical properties that are varying along the early-typegalaxy sequence. The fundamental limitations to providing accurateconstraints on the individual model parameters (variations in age andmetallicity, and the size of the homology breaking) appear to be subtlevariations between stellar population synthesis models and poorlyconstrained velocity dispersion aperture effects. This empiricalapproach nonetheless demonstrates that there are significant systematicvariations in both age and metallicity along the elliptical galaxysequence, and that a small, but systematic, breaking of dynamicalhomology (or a similar, wavelength-independent effect) is required. Theintrinsic thickness of the FP can then be easily understood as smallvariations in age and metallicity, as well as deviations from a homologyat any particular point along the FP. The model parameters will bebetter constrained by measurements of the change of the slope of the FPwith redshift; predictions for this evolution with redshift aredescribed. This model for the underlying physical properties thatproduce the FP scaling relations provides a comprehensive framework forfuture investigations of the global properties of early-type galaxiesand their evolution.

A catalogue of Mg_2 indices of galaxies and globular clusters
We present a catalogue of published absorption-line Mg_2 indices ofgalaxies and globular clusters. The catalogue is maintained up-to-datein the HYPERCAT database. The measurements are listed together with thereferences to the articles where the data were published. A codeddescription of the observations is provided. The catalogue gathers 3541measurements for 1491 objects (galaxies or globular clusters) from 55datasets. Compiled raw data for 1060 galaxies are zero-point correctedand transformed to a homogeneous system. Tables 1, 3, and 4 areavailable in electronic form only at the CDS, Strasbourg, via anonymousftp Table 2 is available both in text and electronic form.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

Galaxy clusters in the Perseus-Pisces region. I - Spectroscopic and photometric data for early-type galaxies
We present new spectroscopic and photometric data for 137 early-typegalaxies in nine clusters and for a set of nearby standard galaxies. Ourspectroscopic data comprise radial velocities, central velocitydispersions, and magnesium line strength indices. We demonstrate thatour new velocity dispersion data can be brought into consistency withthe standard system, to an uncertainty of percent 0.01 dex. From R-bandCCD photometry, we derive the effective diameter, the mean surfacebrightness within the effective diameter, and an R-band diameterequivalent to the Dn parameter of Dressler et al. Internal comparisonsindicate an average error of 0.005 in each measurement of log Dn. Thephotometric data can be brought on to a system consistent with externaldata at the level of 0.5 per cent in distance.

A Search for ``Dwarf'' Seyfert Nuclei. III. Spectroscopic Parameters and Properties of the Host Galaxies
We have completed an optical spectroscopic survey of the nuclear regions(r <~ 200 pc) of a large sample of nearby galaxies. Although the mainobjectives of the survey are to search for low-luminosity activegalactic nuclei and to quantify their luminosity function, the databasecan be used for a variety of other purposes. This paper presentsmeasurements of the spectroscopic parameters for the 418 emission-linenuclei, along with a compilation of the global properties of all 486galaxies in the survey. Stellar absorption generally poses a seriousobstacle to obtaining accurate measurement of emission lines in nearbygalactic nuclei. We describe a procedure for removing the starlight fromthe observed spectra in an efficient and objective manner. The mainparameters of the emission lines (intensity ratios, fluxes, profilewidths, and equivalent widths) are measured and tabulated, as areseveral stellar absorption-line and continuum indices useful forstudying the stellar population. Using standard nebular diagnostics, wedetermine the probable ionization mechanisms of the emission-lineobjects. The resulting spectral classifications provide extensiveinformation on the demographics of emission-line nuclei in the nearbyregions of the universe. This new catalog contains over 200 objectsshowing spectroscopic evidence for recent star formation and an equallylarge number of active galactic nuclei, including 46 that show broad Halpha emission. These samples will serve as the basis of future studiesof nuclear activity in nearby galaxies.

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Right ascension:17h51m48.90s
Aparent dimensions:2.089′ × 1.778′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 6482

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