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Bar Galaxies and Their Environments
The prints of the Palomar Sky Survey, luminosity classifications, andradial velocities were used to assign all northern Shapley-Ames galaxiesto either (1) field, (2) group, or (3) cluster environments. Thisinformation for 930 galaxies shows no evidence for a dependence of barfrequency on galaxy environment. This suggests that the formation of abar in a disk galaxy is mainly determined by the properties of theparent galaxy, rather than by the characteristics of its environment.

The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.

HI observations of loose galaxy groups. I. Data and global properties
At Nançay, 21-cm H I line observations were made of 15spiral-dominated loose groups of galaxies, divided into two samples: an``interacting'' sample containing at least one pair of interactinggalaxies, and a ``control'' sample having no optical evidence ofinteractions or morphological disturbances among the group members. Theinteracting sample consists of 62 galaxies representing 9 differentgroups, and the control sample contains 40 galaxies representing 6groups. Of the 91 galaxy and galaxy pairs observed, 74 were detected,while upper limits were placed on the remaining 17 objects. Thesehomogeneous H I data, which will be used in future analyses, providecomparative information on the H I content of groups and serve as aprobe of the vicinity of the target spirals for H I clouds or very lowsurface brightness gas-rich galaxies.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Correlations among Global Photometric Properties of Disk Galaxies
Using a two-dimensional galaxy image decomposition technique, we extractglobal bulge and disk parameters for a complete sample of early-typedisk galaxies in the near-infrared K band. We find significantcorrelation of the bulge parameter n with the central bulge surfacebrightness μb(0) and with effective radiusre. Using bivariate analysis techniques, we findthat logn, logre, and μb(0) are distributed ina plane with small scatter. We do not find a strong correlation of nwith bulge-to-disk luminosity ratio, contrary to earlier reports. Forthese early-type disk galaxies, re and the diskscale length rd are well correlated, but withlarge scatter. We examine the implications of our results for variousbulge formation scenarios in disk galaxies.

Box- and peanut-shaped bulges. I. Statistics
We present a classification for bulges of a complete sample of ~ 1350edge-on disk galaxies derived from the RC3 (Third Reference Catalogue ofBright Galaxies, de Vaucouleurs et al. \cite{rc3}). A visualclassification of the bulges using the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) inthree types of b/p bulges or as an elliptical type is presented andsupported by CCD images. NIR observations reveal that dust extinctiondoes almost not influence the shape of bulges. There is no substantialdifference between the shape of bulges in the optical and in the NIR.Our analysis reveals that 45% of all bulges are box- and peanut-shaped(b/p). The frequency of b/p bulges for all morphological types from S0to Sd is > 40%. In particular, this is for the first time that such alarge frequency of b/p bulges is reported for galaxies as late as Sd.The fraction of the observed b/p bulges is large enough to explain theb/p bulges by bars. Partly based on observations collected at ESO/LaSilla (Chile), DSAZ/Calar Alto (Spain), and Lowell Observatory/Flagstaff(AZ/U.S.A.). Tables 6 and 7 are only available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

The I-Band Tully-Fisher Relation for SC Galaxies: 21 Centimeter H I Line Data
A compilation of 21 cm line spectral parameters specifically designedfor application of the Tully-Fisher (TF) distance method is presentedfor 1201 spiral galaxies, primarily field Sc galaxies, for which opticalI-band photometric imaging is also available. New H I line spectra havebeen obtained for 881 galaxies. For an additional 320 galaxies, spectraavailable in a digital archive have been reexamined to allow applicationof a single algorithm for the derivation of the TF velocity widthparameter. A velocity width algorithm is used that provides a robustmeasurement of rotational velocity and permits an estimate of the erroron that width taking into account the effects of instrumental broadeningand signal-to-noise. The digital data are used to establish regressionrelations between measurements of velocity widths using other commonprescriptions so that comparable widths can be derived throughconversion of values published in the literature. The uniform H I linewidths presented here provide the rotational velocity measurement to beused in deriving peculiar velocities via the TF method.

The I-Band Tully-Fisher Relation for SC Galaxies: Optical Imaging Data
Properties derived from the analysis of photometric I-band imagingobservations are presented for 1727 inclined spiral galaxies, mostly oftypes Sbc and Sc. The reduction, parameter extraction, and errorestimation procedures are discussed in detail. The asymptotic behaviorof the magnitude curve of growth and the radial variation in ellipticityand position angle are used in combination with the linearity of thesurface brightness falloff to fit the disk portion of the profile. TotalI-band magnitudes are calculated by extrapolating the detected surfacebrightness profile to a radius of eight disk scale lengths. Errors inthe magnitudes, typically ~0.04 mag, are dominated by uncertainties inthe sky subtraction and disk-fitting procedures. Comparison is made withthe similar imaging database of Mathewson, Ford, & Buchhorn, both aspresented originally by those authors and after reanalyzing theirdigital reduction files using identical disk-fitting procedures. Directcomparison is made of profile details for 292 galaxies observed incommon. Although some differences occur, good agreement is found,proving that the two data sets can be used in combination with onlyminor accommodation of those differences. The compilation of opticalproperties presented here is optimized for use in applications of theTully-Fisher relation as a secondary distance indicator in studies ofthe local peculiar velocity field.

Groups of galaxies. III. Some empirical characteristics.
Not Available

Bulge-Disk Decomposition of 659 Spiral and Lenticular Galaxy Brightness Profiles
We present one of the largest homogeneous sets of spiral and lenticulargalaxy brightness profile decompositions completed to date. The 659galaxies in our sample have been fitted with a de Vaucouleurs law forthe bulge component and an inner-truncated exponential for the diskcomponent. Of the 659 galaxies in the sample, 620 were successfullyfitted with the chosen fitting functions. The fits are generally welldefined, with more than 90% having rms deviations from the observedprofile of less than 0.35 mag. We find no correlations of fittingquality, as measured by these rms residuals, with either morphologicaltype or inclination. Similarly, the estimated errors of the fittedcoefficients show no significant trends with type or inclination. Thesedecompositions form a useful basis for the study of the lightdistributions of spiral and lenticular galaxies. The object base issufficiently large that well-defined samples of galaxies can be selectedfrom it.

Kinematics of the local universe. VII. New 21-cm line measurements of 2112 galaxies
This paper presents 2112 new 21-cm neutral hydrogen line measurementscarried out with the meridian transit Nan\c cay radiotelescope. Amongthese data we give also 213 new radial velocities which complement thoselisted in three previous papers of this series. These new measurements,together with the HI data collected in LEDA, put to 6 700 the number ofgalaxies with 21-cm line width, radial velocity, and apparent diameterin the so-called KLUN sample. Figure 5 and Appendices A and B forcorresponding comments are available in electronic form at thehttp://www.edpsciences.com

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

Near-infrared surface photometry of bulges and disks of spiral galaxies. The data
We present optical and near-infrared (NIR) surface brightness and colourprofiles, in bands ranging from U to K, for the disk and bulgecomponents of a complete sample of 30 nearby S0 to Sbc galaxies withinclinations larger than 50 deg. We describe in detail the observationsand the determination of colour parameters. Calibrated monochromatic andreal-colour images are presented, as well as colour index maps. Thisdata set, tailored for the study of the population characteristics ofgalaxy bulges, provides useful information on the colours of inner disksas well. In related papers, we have used them to quantify colourgradients in bulges, and age differentials between bulge and inner disk.

Ages of Galaxies Bulges and Disks From Optical and Near-Infrared Colors
We compare optical and near-infrared colors of disks and bulges in adiameter-limited sample of inclined, bright, nearby, early-type spirals.Color profiles along wedge apertures at 15^deg^ from the major axis andon the minor axis on the side of the galaxy opposite to the dust laneare used to assign nominal colors for the inner disks (at 2 scalelength) and for the bulges (~0.5r_eff_), respectively. We estimate thatthe effects of dust reddening and the cross-talk between the colors ofthe two components is negligible. We find that color differences(bulge-disk) are very small: {DELTA}(U-R) = 0.126+/-0.165,{DELTA}(R-K)=0078+/-0.165. Disks tend to be bluer by an amount threetimes smaller than that reported by Bothun & Gregg [ApJ,350,73(1990)] for S0s. Color variations from galaxy to galaxy are muchlarger than color differences between disk and bulge in each galaxy.Probably, the underlying old population of disks and bulges is much moresimilar than the population paradigm would lead us to believe. Impliedage differences, assuming identical metallicities, are less than 30%.

Optical and I-band surface photometry of spiral galaxies. I. The data.
We present V- and I-band CCD surface photometry on 234 inclined Sa-Sdgalaxies, completed by similar data in B and R for a reduced subsample.In this first paper of a series, the reduction of the data is discussed,and several comparisons are made with other recent works. Radialprofiles are presented for the surface brightness and thecharacteristics of ellipses fitted to isophotes; global, effective, andisophotal parameters are listed. All the results are available inelectronic form.

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

Global H I profiles of spiral galaxies.
In this paper we present short H I synthesis observations of 57 galaxieswithout H I information in the RC3. These are a by-product of a largesurvey with the WSRT of the neutral hydrogen gas in spiral and irregulargalaxies. Global profiles and related quantities are given for the 42detected galaxies and upper limits for the remaining 15. A number ofgalaxies have low values of H I mass-to-blue luminosity ratio.

The Shape of the Luminosity Profiles of Bulges of Spiral Galaxies
Using a 2D generalization of Kent's model-independent decompositionmethod, we extract the K-band light profiles of the bulges of a sampleof field galaxies with morphological types ranging from S0 to Sbc. Wethen examine the shape of the bulge profiles, by means of fitting aseeing-convolved power law of the form μ(r) is proportional tor^1/n^, where the exponent n is allowed to vary. The best-fittingexponent n is found to vary systematically from values around 1(exponential) to 6 from late- to early- type bulges; the profiles tendto fall off more steeply in the outer parts for the later types. Thesame trend is seen as a function of bulge to disc ratio. Application ofthe method to artificial data proves that this result is not caused bydisc-light contamination. There are also indications that n becomeslarger with increasing total luminosity and radius of the bulge. Asimilar relation has recently been found for elliptical galaxies. Thesmooth trend of n with morphological type shows that the formation of orinteraction with the disc has affected the density distribution of thebulge.

A Preliminary Classification Scheme for the Central Regions of Late-Type Galaxies
The large-scale prints in The Carnegie Atlas of Galaxies have been usedto formulate a classification scheme for the central regions oflate-type galaxies. Systems that exhibit small bright central bulges ordisks (type CB) are found to be of earlier Hubble type and of higherluminosity than galaxies that do not contain nuclei (type NN). Galaxiescontaining nuclear bars, or exhibiting central regions that are resolvedinto individual stars and knots, and galaxies with semistellar nuclei,are seen to have characteristics that are intermediate between those oftypes CB and NN. The presence or absence of a nucleus appears to be auseful criterion for distinguishing between spiral galaxies andmagellanic irregulars.

Arm structure in normal spiral galaxies, 1: Multivariate data for 492 galaxies
Multivariate data have been collected as part of an effort to develop anew classification system for spiral galaxies, one which is notnecessarily based on subjective morphological properties. A sample of492 moderately bright northern Sa and Sc spirals was chosen for futurestatistical analysis. New observations were made at 20 and 21 cm; thelatter data are described in detail here. Infrared Astronomy Satellite(IRAS) fluxes were obtained from archival data. Finally, new estimatesof arm pattern radomness and of local environmental harshness werecompiled for most sample objects.

Colors and color gradients in bulges of galaxies
We have obtained surface photometry in U, B, R, and I for a completeoptically selected sample of 45 early-type spiral galaxies, toinvestigate the colors and color gradients of spiral bulges. Colorprofiles in U-R, B-R, U-B, and R-I have been determined in wedgesopening on the semiminor axes. Based on several criteria, like thesmoothness of the color profiles, the absence of dust lanes, and thecentral colors, we have defined a subsample of 18 objects whose colorsare largely unaffected by dust. We believe such colors are suitable forinferring properties of the stellar populations of bulges. We find thatthe colors of bulges are predominantly bluer than those of ellipticals.This result holds even when bulges are compared to ellipticals of thesame luminosity, and indicates that bulges are younger and/or more metalpoor than old elliptical galaxies. Most bulges do not reach solarmetallicities. Bulges show predominantly negative color gradients (blueroutward). For bright bulges (MBulgeR is less than-20.0), the magnitude of the gradient increases with bulge luminosity.For fainter bulges, gradients scatter around large negative values. Thebehavior of color gradients as a function of bulge luminosity suggestsdifferent formation mechanisms for faint and bright spheroids. Forbright bulges, the scaling of gradients with luminosity suggests aformation process involving dissipation. The similarity with ellipticalssuggests that the formation of the disk did not affect the stellarpopulations of the bulge in a major way. For small bulges (MRis greater than -20), the existence of pronounced color gradientssuggests a different formation mechanism. For these objects, thepresence of the disk may have severely affected the radial populationdistribution in the bulge.

A revised catalog of CfA1 galaxy groups in the Virgo/Great Attractor flow field
A new identification of groups and clusters in the CfA1 Catalog ofHuchra et al. is presented, using a percolation algorithm to identifydensity enhancements. It is shown that in the resulting catalog,contamination by interlopers is significantly reduced. The Schechterluminosity function is redetermined, including the Malmquist bias.

Satellites of spiral galaxies
We present a survey of satellites around a homogeneous set of late-typespirals with luminosity similar to that of the Milky Way. On average, wefind fewer than 1.5 satellites per primary, but we argue that we cantreat the survey as an ensemble and so derive the properties of the haloof a 'typical' isolated spiral. The projected density profile of theensemble falls off approximately as 1/r. Within 50 kpc the azimuthaldistribution of satellites shows some evidence for the 'Holmbergeffect', an excess near the minor axis of the primary; however, atlarger projected distances, the distribution appears isotropic. There isa weak but significant correlation between the size of a satellite andits distance from its primary, as expected if satellites are tidallytruncated. Neither Hubble type nor spectral characteristics correlatewith apparent separation. The ensemble of satellites appears to berotating at about 30 km/s in the same direction as the galactic disk.Satellites on prograde orbits tend to be brighter than those onretrograde orbits. The typical velocity difference between a satelliteand its primary shows no clear dependence either on apparent separation,or on the rotation speed of the primary. Thus our survey demonstratesthat isolated spiral galaxies have massive halos that extend to manyoptical radii.

General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.

Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II - The catalogue of groups and group members
This paper gives a catalog of the groups and associations obtained bymeans of a revised hierarchical algorithm applied to a sample of 4143galaxies with diameters larger than 100 arcsec and redshifts smallerthan 6000 km/s. The 264 groups of galaxies obtained in this way (andwhich contain at least three sample galaxies) are listed, with the looseassociations surrounding them and the individual members of eachaggregate as well; moreover, the location of every entity among 13regions corresponding roughly to superclusters is specified. Finally,1729 galaxies belong to the groups, and 466 to the associations, i.e.,the total fraction of galaxies within the various aggregates amounts to53 percent.

The far-infrared properties of the CfA galaxy sample. I - The catalog
IRAS flux densities are presented for all galaxies in the Center forAstrophysics magnitude-limited sample (mB not greater than 14.5)detected in the IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), a total of 1544galaxies. The detection rate in the FSS is slightly larger than in thePSC for the long-wavelength 60- and 100-micron bands, but improves by afactor of about 3 or more for the short wavelength 12- and 25-micronbands. This optically selected sample consists of galaxies which are, onaverage, much less IR-active than galaxies in IR-selected samples. Itpossesses accurate and complete redshift, morphological, and magnitudeinformation, along with observations at other wavelengths.

HI observations of galaxies in nearby Zwicky clusters
The results of a long term project of H I observations of galaxieswithin the boundaries of nearby Zwicky clusters are presented. Thedetection rate is rather low (233 out of 618, i.e., 38 percent) ascompared to other surveys carried out recently. Most of the radialvelocities of the detected galaxies are new determinations. The largespread in radial velocities for many of these clusters is a strongindication for the presence of several foreground and/or backgroundgalaxies.

Galaxy alignments
Large areas of the sky around the brightest apparent magnitude galaxieshave been examined. In almost every case where they are not crowded byother right galaxies, clearly marked lines of higher red shift galaxieshave been going through, or originating from, the positions of thesebright apparent magnitude galaxies. It is shown that galaxies of about3000 to 5000 km/s red shift define narrow filaments of from 10 to 50 degin length. It is found that galaxies of very bright apparent magnitudetend to occur at the center or ends of these alignments. The 20brightest galaxies in apparent magnitude north of delta = 0 deg areinvestigated here. Of the 14 which are uncrowded by nearby brightgalaxies, a total of 13 have well marked-lines and concentrations offainter, higher red shift galaxies.

A deep redshift survey of IRAS galaxies towards the Bootes void
Redshifts were measured for a complete sample of galaxies detected bythe IRAS within 11.5 deg of the center of the void in Bootes discoveredby Kirshner et al (1981). There are 12 IRAS galaxies within the void asdefined by the above authors, seven of which were discovered in thissurvey. One of these has a companion at the same redshift. The resultingdensity of IRAS galaxies in the void is measured to be between 1/6 and1/3 of the average density; the uncertainty is dominated by Poissonstatistics. Good agreement is found between the selection function andnumber density derived from the present sample and those derived fromthe all-sky sample of Strauss (1989). The optical spectra of the newlyfound galaxies in the void are typical of IRAS galaxies in the field.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Canes Venatici
Right ascension:13h54m53.40s
Aparent dimensions:1.995′ × 0.813′

Catalogs and designations:
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NGC 2000.0NGC 5362

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