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Reverberation Measurements of the Inner Radius of the Dust Torus in Nearby Seyfert 1 Galaxies
The most intense monitoring observations yet made in the optical andnear-infrared wave bands were carried out for Seyfert 1 galaxies NGC5548, NGC 4051, NGC 3227, and NGC 7469 by the MAGNUM telescope, andclear time-delayed responses of the K-band flux variations to the V-bandflux variations were found for all of these galaxies. Their H-K colortemperatures of 1500-1800 K, estimated from their observed fluxvariation gradients, support a view that the bulk of the K flux shouldoriginate in the thermal radiation of hot dust surrounding the centralengine and that the lag time should correspond to light-travel distancebetween them. Cross-correlation analysis measures their lag times to be47-53 (NGC 5548), 11-18 (NGC 4051), about 20 (NGC 3227), and 65-87 (NGC7469) days. The lag times are tightly correlated with the opticalluminosities, as expected from dust reverberation(Δt~L0.5), while weakly with the central virial masses,which suggests that the inner radii of the dust tori around activenuclei have one-to-one correspondences with their central luminosities.In the lag time versus central luminosity diagram, the K-band lag timesplace an upper boundary on the similar lag times of broad emission linesin the literature, which not only supports the unified scheme of AGNsbut also implies a physical transition from the BLR out to the dusttorus that encircles the BLR. Correlated short-term V-band and X-rayflux variations in NGC 5548 are also found with a delay of 1 or 2 days,indicating the thermal reprocessing of X-ray emission by the centralaccretion flow.

Local and Large-Scale Environment of Seyfert Galaxies
We present a three-dimensional study of the local (<=100h-1 kpc) and the large-scale (<=1 h-1 Mpc)environment of the two main types of Seyfert AGN galaxies. For thispurpose we use 48 Seyfert 1 galaxies (with redshifts in the range0.007<=z<=0.036) and 56 Seyfert 2 galaxies (with0.004<=z<=0.020), located at high galactic latitudes, as well astwo control samples of nonactive galaxies having the same morphological,redshift, and diameter size distributions as the corresponding Seyfertsamples. Using the Center for Astrophysics (CfA2) and Southern SkyRedshift Survey (SSRS) galaxy catalogs (mB~15.5) and our ownspectroscopic observations (mB~18.5), we find that within aprojected distance of 100 h-1 kpc and a radial velocityseparation of δv<~600 km s-1 around each of ourAGNs, the fraction of Seyfert 2 galaxies with a close neighbor issignificantly higher than that of their control (especially within 75h-1 kpc) and Seyfert 1 galaxy samples, confirming a previoustwo-dimensional analysis of Dultzin-Hacyan et al. We also find that thelarge-scale environment around the two types of Seyfert galaxies doesnot vary with respect to their control sample galaxies. However, theSeyfert 2 and control galaxy samples do differ significantly whencompared to the corresponding Seyfert 1 samples. Since the maindifference between these samples is their morphological typedistribution, we argue that the large-scale environmental differencecannot be attributed to differences in nuclear activity but rather totheir different type of host galaxies.

A Survey of Kiloparsec-Scale Radio Outflows in Radio-Quiet Active Galactic Nuclei
Seyfert galaxies commonly host compact jets spanning 10-100 pc scales,but larger structures are resolved out in long-baseline aperturesynthesis surveys. Previous, targeted studies showed thatkiloparsec-scale radio structures (KSRs) may be a common feature ofSeyfert and LINER galaxies, and the origin of KSRs may be starbursts oractive galactic nuclei (AGNs). We report a new Very Large Array surveyof a complete sample of Seyfert and LINER galaxies. Out of all of thesurveyed radio-quiet sources, we find that 44% (19 out of 43) showextended radio structures at least 1 kpc in total extent that do notmatch the morphology of the disk or its associated star-forming regions.The detection rate is a lower limit owing to the combined effects ofprojection and resolution. The infrared colors of the KSR host galaxiesare unremarkable compared to other Seyfert galaxies, and the large-scaleoutflows orient randomly with respect to the host galaxy axes. The KSRSeyfert galaxies instead stand out by deviating significantly from thefar-infrared-radio correlation for star-forming galaxies, with tendencytoward radio excess, and they are more likely to have a relativelyluminous, compact radio source in the nucleus; these results argue thatKSRs are powered by the AGNs rather than starbursts. The high detectionrate indicates that Seyfert galaxies generate radio outflows over asignificant fraction of their lifetime, which is much longer than thedynamical timescale of an AGN-powered jet but is comparable instead tothe buoyancy timescale. The likely explanation is that the KSRsoriginate from jet plasma that has been decelerated by interaction withthe nuclear interstellar medium (ISM). Based on a simple ram pressureargument, the kinetic power of the jet on kiloparsec scales is about 3orders of magnitude weaker than the power of the jet on 10-100 pcscales. This result is consistent with the interaction model, in whichcase virtually all of the jet power must be lost to the ISM within theinner kiloparsec.

The Host Galaxies of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies: Nuclear Dust Morphology and Starburst Rings
We present a study of the nuclear morphology of a sample of narrow- andbroad-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s and BLS1s, respectively) based onbroadband images in the Hubble Space Telescope archives. In our previousstudy we found that large-scale stellar bars at >1 kpc from thenucleus are more common in NLS1s than BLS1s. In this paper we find thatNLS1s preferentially have grand-design dust spirals within ~1 kpc oftheir centers. We also find that NLS1s have a higher fraction of nuclearstar-forming rings than BLS1s. We find that many of the morphologicaldifferences are due to the presence or absence of a large-scale stellarbar within the spiral host galaxy. In general, barred Seyfert 1 galaxiestend to have grand-design dust spirals at their centers, confirming theresults of other researchers. The high fraction of grand-design nucleardust spirals and stellar nuclear rings observed in NLS1s' host galaxiessuggests a means for efficient fueling of their nuclei to support theirhigh Eddington ratios.

Classifications of the Host Galaxies of Supernovae, Set III
A homogeneous sample comprising host galaxies of 604 recent supernovae,including 212 objects discovered primarily in 2003 and 2004, has beenclassified on the David Dunlap Observatory system. Most SN 1991bg-likeSNe Ia occur in E and E/Sa galaxies, whereas the majority of SN1991T-like SNe Ia occur in intermediate-type galaxies. This differenceis significant at the 99.9% level. As expected, all types of SNe II arerare in early-type galaxies, whereas normal SNe Ia occur in all Hubbletypes. This difference is significant at the 99.99% level. A smallnumber of SNe II in E galaxies might be due to galaxy classificationerrors or to a small young-population component in these mainly oldobjects. No significant difference is found between the distributionsover the Hubble type of SNe Ibc and SNe II. This confirms that both ofthese types of objects have similar (massive) progenitors. The presentdata show that in order to understand the dependence of supernova typeon host-galaxy population, it is more important to obtain accuratemorphological classifications than it is to increase the size of thedata sample.

The Hubble Space Telescope View of LINER Nuclei: Evidence for a Dual Population?
We study a complete, distance-limited sample of 25 LINERs, 21 of whichhave been imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope. In nine objects wedetect an unresolved nucleus. To study their physical properties, wecompare the radio and optical properties of the nuclei of LINERs withthose of other samples of local active galactic nuclei (AGNs), namely,Seyfert galaxies and low-luminosity radio galaxies (LLRGs). Our resultsshow that the LINER population is not homogeneous, as there are twosubclasses: (1) the first class is similar to the LLRG class, as itextends the population of radio-loud nuclei to lower luminosities; (2)the second is similar to Seyfert galaxies and extends the properties ofradio-quiet nuclei toward the lowest luminosities. The objects areoptimally discriminated in the plane formed by the black hole massversus nuclear radio loudness: all radio-loud LINERs haveMBH>~108Msolar, while Seyfertgalaxies and radio-quiet LINERs haveMBH<~108Msolar. The different natureof the various classes of local AGNs are best understood when thefraction of the Eddington luminosity they irradiate,Lo/LEdd, is plotted against the nuclearradio-loudness parameter: Seyfert galaxies are associated withrelatively high radiative efficienciesLo/LEdd>~10-4 (and high accretionrates onto low-mass black holes); LLRGs are associated with lowradiative efficiencies (and low accretion rates onto high-mass blackholes); all LINERs have low radiative efficiency (and accretion rates)and can be radio-loud or radio-quiet, depending on their black holemass.Based on observations obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute,which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

A Simple Test for the Existence of Two Accretion Modes in Active Galactic Nuclei
By analogy to the different accretion states observed in black holeX-ray binaries (BHXBs), it appears plausible that accretion disks inactive galactic nuclei (AGNs) undergo a state transition between aradiatively efficient and inefficient accretion flow. If the radiativeefficiency changes at some critical accretion rate, there will be achange in the distribution of black hole masses and bolometricluminosities at the corresponding transition luminosity. To test thisprediction, I consider the joint distribution of AGN black hole massesand bolometric luminosities for a sample taken from the literature. Thesmall number of objects with low Eddington-scaled accretion ratesm˙<0.01 and black hole massesMBH<109Msolar constitutes tentativeevidence for the existence of such a transition in AGNs. Selectioneffects, in particular those associated with flux-limited samples,systematically exclude objects in particular regions of the(MBH,Lbol) plane. Therefore, they requireparticular attention in the analysis of distributions of black holemass, bolometric luminosity, and derived quantities such as theaccretion rate. I suggest further observational tests of the BHXB-AGNunification scheme that are based on the jet domination of the energyoutput of BHXBs in the hard state, and of the possible equivalence ofBHXB in the very high (or steep power-law) state showing ejections andefficiently accreting quasars and radio galaxies with powerful radiojets.

Active and Star-forming Galaxies and Their Supernovae
To investigate the extent to which nuclear starbursts or other nuclearactivity may be connected with enhanced star formation activity in thehost galaxy, we perform a statistical investigation of supernovae (SNe)discovered in host galaxies from four samples: the Markarian galaxiessample, the Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) sample, the north Galactic pole(NGP) sample of active or star-forming galaxies, and the NGP sample ofnormal galaxies. Forty-seven SNe in 41 Mrk galaxies, 10 SNe in six SBSgalaxies, 29 SNe in 26 NGP active or star-forming galaxies, and 29 SNein 26 NGP normal galaxies have been studied. We find that the rate ofSNe, particularly core-collapse (Types Ib/c and II) SNe, is higher inactive or star-forming galaxies in comparison with normal galaxies.Active or star-forming host galaxies of SNe are generally of latermorphological type and have lower luminosity and smaller linear sizethan normal host galaxies of SNe. The radial distribution of SNe inactive and star-forming galaxies shows a higher concentration toward thecenter of the active host galaxy than is the case for normal hostgalaxies, and this effect is more pronounced for core-collapse SNe.Ib/c-type SNe have been discovered only in active and star-forminggalaxies of our samples. About 78% of these SNe are associated with H IIregions or are located very close to the nuclear regions of these activegalaxies, which are in turn hosting AGNs or starburst nuclei. Besidesthese new results, our study also supports the conclusions of severalother earlier papers. We find that Type Ia SNe occur in all galaxytypes, whereas core-collapse SNe of Types Ib/c and II are found only inspiral and irregular galaxies. The radial distribution of Type Ib SNe intheir host galaxies is more centrally concentrated than that of Type IIand Ia SNe. The radial distances of Types Ib/c and II SNe, from thenuclei of their host galaxies, is larger for barred spiral hosts.Core-collapse SNe are concentrated in spiral arms and are often close toor in the H II regions, whereas Type Ia SNe show only a looseassociation with spiral arms and no clear association with H II regions.

The Structural Properties of Isolated Galaxies, Spiral-Spiral Pairs, and Mergers: The Robustness of Galaxy Morphology during Secular Evolution
We present a structural analysis of nearby galaxies in spiral-spiralpairs in optical BVRI bands and compare them with the structures ofisolated spiral galaxies and galaxies in ongoing mergers. We use thesecomparisons to determine how galaxy structure changes during galaxyinteractions and mergers. We analyze light concentration (C), asymmetry(A), and clumpiness (S) parameters, and use the projections of CASparameter space to compare these samples. We find that the CASparameters of paired galaxies are correlated with the projectedseparations of the pair. For the widest and closest pairs, the CASparameters tend to be similar to those of isolated and ongoing majormergers (e.g., ultraluminous infrared galaxies), respectively. Ourresults imply that galaxy morphology is a robust property that onlychanges significantly during a strong interaction or major merger. Thetypical timescale for this change in our paired sample, based ondynamical friction arguments, is short, τ~0.1-0.5 Gyr. We findaverage enhancement factors for the spiral-pair asymmetries andclumpiness values of ~2.2 and 1.5. The S parameter, which is related tostar formation (SF) activity, has a moderate level of enhancement,suggesting that this activity in modern spirals depends more on internalprocesses than on external conditions. We further test the statisticalcriterion for picking up interacting galaxies in an automated way byusing the A-S projection plane. The diversity of our spiral-pair samplein the CAS space suggests that structural/SF/morphological properties ofinteracting galaxies change abruptly only when the interaction becomesvery strong and the criteria given previously by Conselice for findinggalaxies involved in major mergers are effective.

The Westerbork HI survey of spiral and irregular galaxies. III. HI observations of early-type disk galaxies
We present Hi observations of 68 early-type disk galaxies from the WHISPsurvey. They have morphological types between S0 and Sab and absoluteB-band magnitudes between -14 and -22. These galaxies form the massive,high surface-brightness extreme of the disk galaxy population, few ofwhich have been imaged in Hi before. The Hi properties of the galaxiesin our sample span a large range; the average values of MHI/LB and DH I/D25 are comparableto the ones found in later-type spirals, but the dispersions around themean are larger. No significant differences are found between the S0/S0aand the Sa/Sab galaxies. Our early-type disk galaxies follow the same Himass-diameter relation as later-type spiral galaxies, but theireffective Hi surface densities are slightly lower than those found inlater-type systems. In some galaxies, distinct rings of Hi emissioncoincide with regions of enhanced star formation, even though theaverage gas densities are far below the threshold of star formationderived by Kennicutt (1989, ApJ, 344, 685). Apparently, additionalmechanisms, as yet unknown, regulate star formation at low surfacedensities. Many of the galaxies in our sample have lopsided gasmorphologies; in most cases this can be linked to recent or ongoinginteractions or merger events. Asymmetries are rare in quiescentgalaxies. Kinematic lopsidedness is rare, both in interacting andisolated systems. In the appendix, we present an atlas of the Hiobservations: for all galaxies we show Hi surface density maps, globalprofiles, velocity fields and radial surface density profiles.

On the alignment between binary spiral galaxies
We show some significance against the null hypothesis of randominteractions of binary spiral galaxies, and in favour of the alternativethat more interactions than expected occur for axes either nearlyparallel (spins being parallel or anti-parallel) or nearly orthogonal.We discuss this in the context of similar prior studies, using adifferent statistical focus in such a way that we are able toincorporate additional data.

Long-term infrared photometry of Seyferts
Long-term (up to 10 000 d) monitoring has been undertaken for 41Seyferts in the near-infrared (1.25-3.45 μm). All but two showedvariability, with amplitudes at K in the range <0.1 to >1.1 mag.The time-scale for detectable change is from about one week to a fewyears.Where contemporary observations of variability in X-rays, ultraviolet(UV) or visible light exist, it is found that the near-infrared variesin a similar way, though in some cases the shorter-wavelength infrared(IR) bands are diluted by underlying galaxy radiation.A simple cross-correlation study indicates that there is evidence fordelays of up to several hundred d between the variations seen at theshortest wavelengths (U or J) and the longest (L) in many galaxies. Inparticular, the data for Fairall 9 now extend to twice the intervalcovered in earlier publications and the delay between its UV and IRoutputs is seen to persist.An analysis of the fluxes shows that, for any given galaxy, the coloursof the variable component of its nucleus are usually independent of thelevel of activity. The state of activity of the galaxy can beparameterized.Taken over the whole sample, the colours of the variable components fallwithin moderately narrow ranges. In particular, the H-K colour isappropriate to a blackbody of temperature 1600 K. The H-K excess for aheavily reddened nucleus can be determined and used to findEB-V, which can be compared to the values found from thevisible region broad line ratios.Using flux-flux diagrams, the flux within the aperture from theunderlying galaxies can often be determined without the need for modelsurface brightness profiles. In many galaxies it is apparent that theremust be an additional constant contribution from warm dust.

The infrared continuum of active galactic nuclei
We discuss the different physical processes contributing to the infraredcontinuum of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), assuming that bothphotoionization from the active centre and shocks ionize and heat thegas and dust contained in an ensemble of clouds surrounding the nucleus.In our model, radiation transfer of primary and secondary radiationthroughout a cloud is calculated consistently with collisional processesdue to the shock. We consider that the observed continuum corresponds toreprocessed radiation from both dust and gas in the clouds. Collisionalprocesses are important in the presence of shocks. The grains aresputtered crossing the shock front. The models are constrained bysputtering as well as by the far-infrared data. The model is applied tothe continuum of Seyfert galaxies from which the best estimate of thenuclear, stellar subtracted, emission is available. The results showthat radiation-dominated high-velocity clouds are more numerous inSeyfert 1-1.5 whereas shock-dominated low-velocity clouds are dominantin Seyfert type 2. This result is in full agreement with the unifiedmodel for AGNs, by which high-velocity clouds, placed deeper into thecentral region and therefore reached by a more intense radiation, shouldplay a more significant role in the spectra of broad-line objects. Wecould therefore conclude that in type 2 objects, radiation is partlysuppressed by a central dusty medium with a high dust-to-gas ratio. Oncethe model approach is tested, a grid of models is used to provide aphenomenological analysis of the observed infrared spectral energydistribution. This empirical method is a useful tool to rapidly accessthe physical conditions of the AGN emitting clouds. For this, analyticalforms are derived for the two processes contributing to the infraredemission: dust emission and thermal bremsstrahlung produced by thenarrow-line region clouds. Their relative contribution provides ameasurement of the dust-to-gas ratio.

Supernova 2004bd in NGC 3786
IAUC 8317 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.

Supernova 2004bd in NGC 3786
IAUC 8316 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.

Emission Line Properties of Active Galactic Nuclei from a Post-COSTAR Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph Spectral Atlas
We present consistent emission-line measurements for active galacticnuclei (AGNs), useful for reliable statistical studies of emission lineproperties. This paper joins a series including similar measurements of993 spectra from the Large Bright Quasar Survey and 174 spectra of AGNsobtained from the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) on the Hubble SpaceTelescope (HST) prior to the installation of COSTAR. This time weconcentrate on 220 spectra obtained with the FOS after the installationof COSTAR, completing the emission line analysis of all FOS archivalspectra. We use the same automated technique as in previous papers,which accounts for Galactic extinction, models blended optical and UViron emission, includes Galactic and intrinsic absorption lines, andmodels emission lines using multiple Gaussians. We present UV andoptical emission line parameters (equivalent widths, fluxes, FWHM, andline positions) for a large number (28) of emission lines includingupper limits for undetected lines. Further scientific analyses will bepresented in subsequent papers.

Comparison of Nuclear Starburst Luminosities between Seyfert 1 and 2 Galaxies Based on Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
We report on infrared K- (2-2.5 μm) and L-band (2.8-4.1 μm) slitspectroscopy of 23 Seyfert 1 galaxies in the CfA and 12 μm samples. Apolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission feature at 3.3 μm inthe L band is primarily used to investigate nuclear star-formingactivity in these galaxies. The 3.3 μm PAH emission is detected in 10sources (=43%), demonstrating that detection of nuclear star formationin a significant fraction of Seyfert 1 galaxies is now feasible. For thePAH-detected nuclei, the surface brightness values of the PAH emissionare as high as those of typical starbursts, suggesting that the PAHemission probes the putative nuclear starbursts in the dusty tori aroundthe central active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The magnitudes of the nuclearstarbursts are quantitatively estimated from the observed 3.3 μm PAHemission luminosities. The estimated starburst luminosities relative tosome indicators of AGN powers in these Seyfert 1 galaxies are comparedwith 32 Seyfert 2 galaxies in the same samples that we have previouslyobserved. We find that there is no significant difference in nuclearstarburst to AGN luminosity ratios of Seyfert 1 and 2 galaxies and thatnuclear starburst luminosity positively correlates with AGN power inboth types. Our results favor a slightly modified AGN unification model,which predicts that nuclear starbursts occurring in the dusty tori ofSeyfert galaxies are physically connected to the central AGNs, ratherthan the classical unification paradigm, in which the dusty tori simplyhide the central AGNs of Seyfert 2 galaxies and reprocess AGN radiationas infrared dust emission in Seyfert galaxies. No significantdifferences in nuclear star formation properties are recognizablebetween Seyfert 1 galaxies in the CfA and 12 μm samples.

Circumnuclear Structure and Black Hole Fueling: Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Imaging of 250 Active and Normal Galaxies
Why are the nuclei of some galaxies more active than others? If mostgalaxies harbor a central massive black hole, the main difference isprobably in how well it is fueled by its surroundings. We investigatethe hypothesis that such a difference can be seen in the detailedcircumnuclear morphologies of galaxies using several quantitativelydefined features, including bars, isophotal twists, boxy and diskyisophotes, and strong nonaxisymmetric features in unsharp-masked images.These diagnostics are applied to 250 high-resolution images of galaxycenters obtained in the near-infrared with NICMOS on the Hubble SpaceTelescope. To guard against the influence of possible biases andselection effects, we have carefully matched samples of Seyfert 1,Seyfert 2, LINER, starburst, and normal galaxies in their basicproperties, taking particular care to ensure that each was observed witha similar average scale (10-15 pc pixel-1). Severalmorphological differences among our five different spectroscopicclassifications emerge from the analysis. The H II/starburst galaxiesshow the strongest deviations from smooth elliptical isophotes, whilethe normal galaxies and LINERs have the least disturbed morphology. TheSeyfert 2s have significantly more twisted isophotes than any othercategory, and the early-type Seyfert 2s are significantly more disturbedthan the early-type Seyfert 1s. The morphological differences betweenSeyfert 1s and Seyfert 2s suggest that more is at work than simply theviewing angle of the central engine. They may correspond to differentevolutionary stages.

Galaxy Interaction and the Starburst-Seyfert Connection
Galaxy interactions are studied in terms of the starburst-Seyfertconnection. The starburst requires a high rate of gas supply. Since theefficiency for supplying the gas is high in a galaxy interaction,although the companion is not necessarily discernible, Seyfert galaxieswith circumnuclear starbursts are expected to be interacting. Since thelarge amounts of circumnuclear gas and dust obscure the broad-lineregion, they are expected to be observed as Seyfert 2 galaxies. Theactive galactic nucleus itself does not require a high rate of gassupply. Seyfert galaxies without circumnuclear starbursts are notnecessarily expected to be interacting even at the highest luminosities.They are not necessarily expected to evolve from Seyfert galaxies withcircumnuclear starbursts. We derive these and other theoreticalexpectations and confirm them with statistics on observational data ofmagnitude-limited samples of Seyfert galaxies.

Inner Size of a Dust Torus in the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 4151
The most intense monitoring observations yet made were carried out onthe Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151 in the optical and near-infrared wavebands. A lag from the optical light curve to the near-infrared lightcurve was measured. The lag time between the V and K light curves at theflux minimum in 2001 was precisely 48+2-3 days, asdetermined by a cross-correlation analysis. The correlation between theoptical luminosity of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) and the lag timebetween the UV/optical and the near-infrared light curves is presentedfor NGC 4151 in combination with previous lag-time measurements of NGC4151 and other AGNs in the literature. This correlation is interpretedas thermal dust reverberation in an AGN, where the near-infraredemission from an AGN is expected to be the thermal reradiation from hotdust surrounding the central engine at a radius where the temperatureequals that of the dust sublimation temperature. We find that the innerradius of the dust torus in NGC 4151 is ~0.04 pc corresponding to themeasured lag time, well outside the broad-line region determined byother reverberation studies of the emission lines.

Structure and kinematics of candidatedouble-barred galaxies
Results of optical and NIR spectral and photometric observations of asample of candidate double-barred galaxies are presented. Velocityfields and velocity dispersion maps of stars and ionized gas, continuumand emission-line images were constructed from integral-fieldspectroscopy observations carried out at the 6 m telescope (BTA) of SAORAS, with the MPFS spectrograph and the scanning Fabry-PerotInterferometer. NGC 2681 was also observed with thelong-slit spectrograph of the BTA. Optical and NIR images were obtainedat the BTA and at the 2.1 m telescope (OAN, México).High-resolution images were retrieved from the HST data archive.Morphological and kinematic features of all 13 sample objects aredescribed in detail. Attention is focused on the interpretation ofobserved non-circular motions of gas and stars in circumnuclear (onekiloparsec-scale) regions. We have shown first of all that these motionsare caused by the gravitational potential of a large-scale bar.NGC 3368 and NGC 3786 have nuclearbars only, their isophotal twist at larger radii being connected withthe bright spiral arms. Three cases of inner polar disks in our sample(NGC 2681, NGC 3368 andNGC 5850) are considered. We found ionized-gascounter-rotation in the central kiloparsec of the lenticular galaxyNGC 3945. Seven galaxies (NGC 470,NGC 2273, NGC 2681, NGC3945, NGC 5566, NGC5905, and NGC 6951) have inner mini-disksnested in large-scale bars. Minispiral structures occur often in thesenuclear disks. It is interesting that the majority of the observed,morphological and kinematical, features in the sample galaxies can beexplained without the secondary bar hypothesis. Thus we suggest that adynamically independent secondary bar is a rarer phenomenon than followsfrom isophotal analysis of the images only.Based on observations carried out at the 6 m telescope of the SpecialAstrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences, operatedunder the financial support of the Science Department of Russia(registration number 01-43), at the 2.1 m telescope of the ObservatorioAstronónico Nacional, San Pedro Martir, México, and fromthe data archive of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope at the SpaceTelescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the association ofUniversities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS5-26555.Tables 1 to 6 and Figures 2-13 and 15-18 are only available inelectronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

Properties of isolated disk galaxies
We present a new sample of northern isolated galaxies, which are definedby the physical criterion that they were not affected by other galaxiesin their evolution during the last few Gyr. To find them we used thelogarithmic ratio, f, between inner and tidal forces acting upon thecandidate galaxy by a possible perturber. The analysis of thedistribution of the f-values for the galaxies in the Coma cluster leadus to adopt the criterion f ≤ -4.5 for isolated galaxies. Thecandidates were chosen from the CfA catalog of galaxies within thevolume defined by cz ≤5000 km s-1, galactic latitudehigher than 40o and declination ≥-2.5o. Theselection of the sample, based on redshift values (when available),magnitudes and sizes of the candidate galaxies and possible perturberspresent in the same field is discussed. The final list of selectedisolated galaxies includes 203 objects from the initial 1706. The listcontains only truly isolated galaxies in the sense defined, but it is byno means complete, since all the galaxies with possible companions underthe f-criterion but with unknown redshift were discarded. We alsoselected a sample of perturbed galaxies comprised of all the diskgalaxies from the initial list with companions (with known redshift)satisfying f ≥ -2 and \Delta(cz) ≤500 km s-1; a totalof 130 objects. The statistical comparison of both samples showssignificant differences in morphology, sizes, masses, luminosities andcolor indices. Confirming previous results, we found that late spiral,Sc-type galaxies are, in particular, more frequent among isolatedgalaxies, whereas Lenticular galaxies are more abundant among perturbedgalaxies. Isolated systems appear to be smaller, less luminous and bluerthan interacting objects. We also found that bars are twice as frequentamong perturbed galaxies compared to isolated galaxies, in particularfor early Spirals and Lenticulars. The perturbed galaxies have higherLFIR/LB and Mmol/LB ratios,but the atomic gas content is similar for the two samples. The analysisof the luminosity-size and mass-luminosity relations shows similartrends for both families, the main difference being the almost totalabsence of big, bright and massive galaxies among the family of isolatedsystems, together with the almost total absence of small, faint and lowmass galaxies among the perturbed systems. All these aspects indicatethat the evolution induced by interactions with neighbors would proceedfrom late, small, faint and low mass Spirals to earlier, bigger, moreluminous and more massive spiral and lenticular galaxies, producing atthe same time a larger fraction of barred galaxies but preserving thesame relations between global parameters. The properties we found forour sample of isolated galaxies appear similar to those of high redshiftgalaxies, suggesting that the present-day isolated galaxies could bequietly evolved, unused building blocks surviving in low densityenvironments.Tables \ref{t1} and \ref{t2} are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Radio emission from AGN detected by the VLA FIRST survey
Using the most recent (April 2003) version of the VLA FIRST survey radiocatalog, we have searched for radio emission from >2800 AGN takenfrom the most recent (2001) version of the Veron-Cetty and Veron AGNcatalog. These AGN lie in the ˜9033 square degrees of sky alreadycovered by the VLA FIRST survey. Our work has resulted in positivedetection of radio emission from 775 AGN of which 214 are new detectionsat radio wavelengths.Tables 3 and 4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/35

A Search for Core-Collapse Supernova Progenitors in Hubble Space Telescope Images
Identifying the massive progenitor stars that give rise to core-collapsesupernovae (SNe) is one of the main pursuits of supernova and stellarevolution studies. Using ground-based images of recent, nearby SNeobtained primarily with the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope,astrometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, and archival images fromthe Hubble Space Telescope, we have attempted the direct identificationof the progenitors of 16 Type II and Type Ib/c SNe. We may haveidentified the progenitors of the Type II SNe 1999br in NGC 4900, 1999evin NGC 4274, and 2001du in NGC 1365 as supergiant stars withM0V~-6 mag in all three cases. We may have alsoidentified the progenitors of the Type Ib SNe 2001B in IC 391 and 2001isin NGC 1961 as very luminous supergiants withM0V~-8 to -9 mag, and possibly the progenitor ofthe Type Ic SN 1999bu in NGC 3786 as a supergiant withM0V~-7.5 mag. Additionally, we have recovered atlate times SNe 1999dn in NGC 7714, 2000C in NGC 2415, and 2000ew in NGC3810, although none of these had detectable progenitors on pre-supernovaimages. In fact, for the remaining SNe only limits can be placed on theabsolute magnitude and color (when available) of the progenitor. Thedetected Type II progenitors and limits are consistent with redsupergiants as progenitor stars, although possibly not as red as we hadexpected. Our results for the Type Ib/c SNe do not strongly constraineither Wolf-Rayet stars or massive interacting binary systems asprogenitors. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble SpaceTelescope, obtained from the data archive of the Space Telescope ScienceInstitute, which is operated by the Association of Universities forResearch in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

A Possible Signature of Connection between Blazars and Seyfert Galaxies
The accretion rates (dot{M}) and their correlation with cosmologicalredshifts for a sample of blazars and Seyfert galaxies are presented.The sample includes 77 blazars (28 FSRQs, 26 LBLs, and 23 HBLs) and 60Seyfert galaxies, of which the extended spectral energy distributioninformation and redshifts are available. Within the framework ofaccreting black holes, the accretion rates for these sources wereestimated based on their bolometric luminosities. The result shows thatthe accretion rates are significantly different for each subclass of theblazars and Seyfert galaxies. Their averages are, respectively, 50.2,17.0, 1.0, 0.1Modot yr-1 for the FSRQs, LBLs, HBLs, and theSeyfert galaxies, exhibiting a well descending sequence ofFSRQs-LBLs-HBLs-Seyfert galaxies. They are strongly correlated with theredshifts for both blazars and Seyfert galaxies. The linear correlationcoefficients are 0.81 and 0.68 with a chance probab ility of p <0.0001, respectively. A plot of dot{M} - z shows that the blazars andthe Seyfert galaxies distribute in a distinguishable regions with aconnection at z ˜ 0.7 and almost all the sources lie in a narrowregion of z1.40 ≤ dot{M} ≤ 250 z1.40,illustrating a strong correlation between the two quantities for thewhole sample. The regression line is dot{M} = (14.5 ± 1.2)z1.40±0.06 Modot yr-1 with a linearcoefficient of 0.93 and a chance probability of p < 0.0001,suggesting a connection between blazars and Seyfert galaxies. Thisconnection might imply that the two classes are on the same evolutionarysequence. Although the correlations of the data are formally solid, theconclusion may be affected by one source of considerable uncertainty atthe data level, which is also discussed.

Circumnuclear Dust in Nearby Active and Inactive Galaxies. II. Bars, Nuclear Spirals, and the Fueling of Active Galactic Nuclei
We present a detailed study of the relation between circumnuclear dustmorphology, host-galaxy properties, and nuclear activity in nearbygalaxies. We use our sample of 123 nearby galaxies withvisible-near-infrared color maps from the Hubble Space Telescope tocreate well-matched, ``paired'' samples of 28 active and 28 inactivegalaxies, as well as 19 barred and 19 unbarred galaxies, that have thesame host-galaxy properties. Comparison of the barred and unbarredgalaxies shows that grand-design nuclear dust spirals are found only ingalaxies with a large-scale bar. These nuclear dust spirals, which arepresent in approximately one-third of all barred galaxies, also appearto be connected to the dust lanes along the leading edges of thelarge-scale bars. Grand-design nuclear spirals are more common thaninner rings, which are present in only a small minority of the barredgalaxies. Tightly wound nuclear dust spirals, in contrast, show a strongtendency to avoid galaxies with large-scale bars. Comparison of theactive galactic nuclei (AGNs)and inactive samples shows that nucleardust spirals, which may trace shocks and angular momentum dissipation inthe interstellar medium, occur with comparable frequency in both activeand inactive galaxies. The only difference between the active andinactive galaxies is that several inactive galaxies appear to completelylack dust structure in their circumnuclear region, while none of theAGNs lack this structure. The comparable frequency of nuclear spirals inactive and inactive galaxies, combined with previous work that finds nosignificant difference in the frequency of bars or interactions betweenwell-matched active and inactive galaxies, suggests that no universalfueling mechanism for low-luminosity AGNs operates at spatial scalesgreater than a ~100 pc radius from the galactic nuclei. The similaritiesof the circumnuclear environments of active and inactive galaxiessuggest that the lifetime of nuclear activity is less than thecharacteristic inflow time from these spatial scales. Anorder-of-magnitude estimate of this inflow time is the dynamicaltimescale. This sets an upper limit of several million years to thelifetime of an individual episode of nuclear activity.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS5-26555.

Tidally Triggered Star Formation in Close Pairs of Galaxies. II. Constraints on Burst Strengths and Ages
Galaxy-galaxy interactions rearrange the baryons in galaxies and triggersubstantial star formation; the aggregate effects of these interactionson the evolutionary histories of galaxies in the universe are poorlyunderstood. We combine B- and R-band photometry and optical spectroscopyto estimate the strengths and timescales of bursts of triggered starformation in the centers of 190 galaxies in pairs and compact groups.Based on an analysis of the measured colors and EW(Hα), wecharacterize the preexisting and triggered populations separately. Thebest-fitting burst scenarios assume stronger reddening corrections forline emission than for the continuum and continuous star formationlasting for >~100 Myr. The most realistic scenarios require aninitial mass function that is deficient in the highest mass stars. Thecolor of the preexisting stellar population is the most significantsource of uncertainty. Triggered star formation contributessubstantially (probably >~50%) to the R-band flux in the centralregions of several galaxies; tidal tails do not necessarily accompanythis star formation. Many of the galaxies in our sample have bluercenters than outskirts, suggesting that pre- or nonmerger interactionsmay lead to evolution along the Hubble sequence. These objects wouldappear blue and compact at higher redshifts; the older, redder outskirtsof the disks would be difficult to detect. Our data indicate thatgalaxies with larger separations on the sky contain weaker, and probablyolder, bursts of star formation on average. However, confirmation ofthese trends requires further constraints on the colors of the olderstellar populations and on the reddening for individual galaxies.

The Host Galaxies of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies: Evidence for Bar-Driven Fueling
We present a study of the host galaxy morphologies of narrow- andbroad-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1's and BLS1's) based on broadbandoptical images from the Hubble Space Telescope archives. We find thatlarge-scale stellar bars, starting at ~1 kpc from the nucleus, are muchmore common in NLS1's than BLS1's. Furthermore, the fraction of NLS1spirals that have bars increases with decreasing full width athalf-maximum of the broad component of Hβ. These results suggest alink between the large-scale bars, which can support high fueling ratesto the inner kiloparsecs, and the high mass accretion rates associatedwith the supermassive black holes in NLS1's.

Spectral Energy Distributions of Seyfert Nuclei
We present nuclear spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in the range0.4-16 μm for an expanded CfA sample of Seyfert galaxies. Thespectral indexes (fν~ν-αIR)from 1 to 16 μm range from αIR~0.9 to 3.8. Theshapes of the spectra are correlated with Seyfert type in the sense thatsteeper nuclear SEDs (νfν increasing with increasingwavelength) tend to be found in Seyfert 2's, and flatter SEDs(νfν is constant) in Seyfert 1-1.5's. The galaxiesoptically classified as Seyferts 1.8's and 1.9's display values ofαIR as in type 1 objects, or values intermediatebetween those of Seyfert 1's and Seyfert 2's. The intermediate SEDs ofmany Seyfert 1.8-1.9's may be consistent with the presence of a pureSeyfert 1 viewed through a moderate amount (AV<~5 mag) offoreground galaxy extinction. We find, however, that between 10% and 20%of galaxies with broad optical line components have steep infrared SEDs.Torus models usually adopt high equatorial opacities to reproduce theinfrared properties of Seyfert 1's and 2's, resulting in a dichotomy ofinfrared SEDs (flat for type 1's, and steep for type 2's). Such adichotomy, however, is not observed in our sample. The wide range ofspectral indexes observed in the type 2 objects, the lack of extremelysteep SEDs, and the large numbers of objects with intermediate spectralindexes cannot be reconciled with predictions from existing opticallythick torus models. We discuss possible modifications to improve torusmodels, including low optical depth tori, clumpy dusty tori, and highoptical depth tori with an extended optically thin component.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555.

Classifications of the Host Galaxies of Supernovae
Classifications on the DDO system are given for the host galaxies of 177supernovae (SNe) that have been discovered since 1997 during the courseof the Lick Observatory Supernova Search with the Katzman AutomaticImaging Telescope. Whereas SNe Ia occur in all galaxy types, it isfound, at a high level of statistical confidence, that SNe Ib, Ic, andII are strongly concentrated in late-type galaxies. However, attentionis drawn to a possible exception provided by SN 2001I. This SN IInoccurred in the E2 galaxy UGC 2836, which was not expected to harbor amassive young supernova progenitor.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Ursa Major
Right ascension:11h39m42.50s
Aparent dimensions:1.95′ × 1′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 3786

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