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The Rotation Curves of Dwarf Galaxies: A Problem for Cold Dark Matter?
We address the issue of accuracy in recovering density profiles fromobservations of rotation curves of galaxies. We ``observe'' and analyzeour models in much the same way as observers do the real galaxies. Ourmodels include stellar disks, disks with bars, and small bulges. We findthat the tilted-ring model analysis produces an underestimate of thecentral rotational velocity. In some cases the galaxy halo densityprofile seems to have a flat core, while in reality it does not. Weidentify three effects that explain the systematic biases: inclination,small bulge, and bar. Inclination effects are due to the finitethickness of the disk, bar, or bulge. Admixture of a nonrotating bulgecomponent reduces the rotational velocity. A small (200-500 pc) bulgemay be overlooked, leading to systematic bias even on relatively large(~1 kpc) distances. In the case of a disk with a bar, the underestimateof the circular velocity is larger because of a combination ofnoncircular motions and random velocities. The effect of the bar dependson the angle that the bar makes with the line of sight. Signatures ofbars can be difficult to detect in the surface brightness profiles ofthe model galaxies. The variations of inclination angle and isophoteposition angle with radius are more reliable indicators of bar presencethan the surface brightness profiles. The systematic biases in thecentral ~1 kpc of galaxies are not large. Each effect separately givestypically a few km s-1 error, but the effects add up. In somecases the error in circular velocity was a factor of 2, but typically weget about a 20% effect. The result is the false inference that thedensity profile of the halo flattens in the central parts. Ourobservations of real galaxies show that for a large fraction of galaxiesthe velocity of gas rotation (as measured by emission lines) is veryclose to the rotation of the stellar component (as measured byabsorption lines). This implies that the systematic effects discussed inthis paper are also applicable both for the stars and emission-line gas.

Ionized gas and stellar kinematics of seventeen nearby spiral galaxies
Ionized gas and stellar kinematics have been measured along the majoraxes of seventeen nearby spiral galaxies of intermediate to latemorphological type. We discuss the properties of each sample galaxy,distinguishing between those characterized by regular or peculiarkinematics. In most of the observed galaxies, ionized gas rotates morerapidly than stars and has a lower velocity dispersion, as is to beexpected if the gas is confined in the disc and supported by rotationwhile the stars are mostly supported by dynamical pressure. In a fewobjects, gas and stars show almost the same rotational velocity and lowvelocity dispersion, suggesting that their motion is dominated byrotation. Incorporating the spiral galaxies studied by Bertola et al.(\cite{Bertola1996}), Corsini et al. (\cite{Corsini1999},\cite{Corsini2003}) and Vega Beltrán et al. (\cite{Vega2001}) wehave compiled a sample of 50 S0/a-Scd galaxies, for which the major-axiskinematics of the ionized gas and stars have been obtained with the samespatial (≈1'') and spectral (≈50 km;s-1) resolution,and measured with the same analysis techniques. This allowed us toaddress the frequency of counter-rotation in spiral galaxies. It turnsout that less than 12% and less than 8% (at the 95% confidence level) ofthe sample galaxies host a counter-rotating gaseous and stellar disc,respectively. The comparison with S0 galaxies suggests that theretrograde acquisition of small amounts of external gas gives rise tocounter-rotating gaseous discs only in gas-poor S0s, while in gas-richspirals the newly acquired gas is swept away by the pre-existing gas.Counter-rotating gaseous and stellar discs in spirals are formed onlyfrom the retrograde acquisition of large amounts of gas exceeding thatof pre-existing gas, and subsequent star formation, respectively.Based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatory,La Silla (Chile) (ESO 56.A-0684 and 57.A-0569).Tables 3 and 4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/424/447Full Fig. \ref{fig:kinematics} and Figs. \ref{fig:gascomparison} and\ref{fig:starcomparison} are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Homogenization of the Stellar Population along Late-Type Spiral Galaxies
We present a study of the broadband UBV color profiles for 257 Sbcbarred and nonbarred galaxies, using photoelectric aperture photometrydata from the literature. Using robust statistical methods, we haveestimated the color gradients of the galaxies, as well as the total andbulge mean colors. A comparative photometric study using CCD images wasdone. In our sample, the color gradients are negative (reddish inward)in approximately 59% of the objects, are almost null in 27%, and arepositive in 14%, considering only the face-on galaxies, which representapproximately 51% of the sample. The results do not change, essentially,when we include the edge-on galaxies. As a consequence of this study wehave also found that barred galaxies are overrepresented among theobjects having null or positive gradients, indicating that bars act as amechanism of homogenization of the stellar population. This effect ismore evident in the U-B color index, although it can also be detected inthe B-V color. A correlation between the total and bulge colors wasfound that is a consequence of an underlying correlation between thecolors of bulges and disks found by other authors. Moreover, the meantotal color is the same irrespective of the gradient regime, whilebulges are bluer in galaxies with null or positive gradients, whichindicates an increase of the star formation rate in the central regionsof these objects. We have also made a quantitative evaluation of theamount of extinction in the center of these galaxies. This was doneusing the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and the Near InfraredCamera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) Hubble Space Telescope(HST) archival data, as well as CCD B, V, and I images. We show thatalthough the extinction in the V-band can reach values up to 2 mag inthe central region, it is unlikely that dust plays a fundamental role inglobal color gradients. We found no correlation between color and O/Habundance gradients. This result could suggest that the color gradientsare more sensitive to the age rather than to the metallicity of thestellar population. However, the absence of this correlation may becaused by dust extinction. We discuss this result by considering apicture in which bars are a relatively fast, recurrent phenomenon. Theseresults are not compatible with a pure classical monolithic scenario forbulge and disk formation. On the contrary, they favor a scenario inwhich both these components are evolving in a correlated process inwhich stellar bars play a crucial role. Based partly on observationsmade at the Pico dos Dias Observatory (PDO/LNA-CNPq), Brazil.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

Parameters of 2447 Southern Spiral Galaxies for Use in the Tully-Fisher Relation
I-band luminosities, rotational velocities, and redshifts of 1092 spiralgalaxies have been measured by CCD photometry and Hα spectroscopyusing the 1 m and 2.3 m telescopes at Siding Spring Observatory,respectively. The results are tabulated. Luminosity profiles andHα rotation curves are given for the galaxies. When these resultsare combined with similar data for 1355 spiral galaxies publishedpreviously (Mathewson, Ford, & Buchhorn, hereafter Paper I), itprovides a large, uniform, and unique data set with which to measure,via the Tully-Fisher relation, the peculiar velocities of galaxies inthe local universe to a distance of 11,000 km s^-1^ (Mathewson &Ford). Taking advantage of the opportunity for publishing this data inmachine-readable form, in the CD-ROM, we have also included similar datafor the 1355 galaxies in Paper I.

The Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies
The Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies (CSRG) is a comprehensivecompilation of diameters, axis ratios, relative bar position angles, andmorphologies of inner and outer rings, pseudorings, and lenses in 3692galaxies south of declination -17 deg. The purpose of the catalog is toevaluate the idea that these ring phenomena are related to orbitalresonances with a bar or oval in galaxy potentials. The catalog is basedon visual inspection of most of the 606 fields of the Science ResearchCouncil (SRC) IIIa-J southern sky survey, with the ESO-B, ESO-R, andPalomar Sky surveys used as auxiliaries when needed for overexposed coreregions. The catalog is most complete for SRC fields 1-303 (mostly southof declination -42 deg). In addition to ringed galaxies, a list of 859mostly nonringed galaxies intended for comparison with other catalogs isprovided. Other findings from the CSRG that are not based on statisticsare the identification of intrinsic bar/ring misalignment; bars whichunderfill inner rings; dimpling of R'1pseudorings; pointy, rectangular, or hexagonal inner or outer ringshapes; a peculiar polar-ring-related system; and other extreme examplesof spiral structure and ring morphology.

A Preliminary Classification Scheme for the Central Regions of Late-Type Galaxies
The large-scale prints in The Carnegie Atlas of Galaxies have been usedto formulate a classification scheme for the central regions oflate-type galaxies. Systems that exhibit small bright central bulges ordisks (type CB) are found to be of earlier Hubble type and of higherluminosity than galaxies that do not contain nuclei (type NN). Galaxiescontaining nuclear bars, or exhibiting central regions that are resolvedinto individual stars and knots, and galaxies with semistellar nuclei,are seen to have characteristics that are intermediate between those oftypes CB and NN. The presence or absence of a nucleus appears to be auseful criterion for distinguishing between spiral galaxies andmagellanic irregulars.

An H-alpha atlas of nearby southern spiral galaxies
We present an atlas of CCD images of 25 nearby southern spiral galaxiestaken through narrow-band (15 A) H-alpha filters, and accompanying redcontinuum (6676 A) images. Most of these galaxies have never previouslybeen imaged in H-alpha and will complement the earlier photographicatlas of Hodge and Kennicutt. We comment on the individual distributionsof the H II regions in relation to the morphology and characteristics ofeach galaxy. Nearly half of the galaxies surveyed exhibit ratherasymmetrical distributions of star formation activity, even though thestellar distributions may be quite regular. Among galaxies possessingboth a strong stellar bar and an encircling inner ring, there appears tobe a decrease in the number of H II regions tracing out the bar as thenumber of H II regions in the ring itself increases, and vice versa. Theimages should prove useful mainly as finding charts for in-depth studiesof the H II region populations, as well as for the purposes ofdetermining abundance gradients and the kinematics of these galaxies.

The supergalactic plane redshift survey
Redshift measurements, about 1000 of which are new, are presented for1314 galaxies in a survey toward the apex of the large-scale streamingflow for ellipticals. The velocity histogram shows that the excess ingalaxy number counts in this area is due to a substantial concentrationof galaxies with discrete peaks at V about 3000 km/s and V about 4500km/s. After correction for the sampling function, the centroid of thedensity distribution is found to be near V about 4500 km/s.Normalization to the more extensive SSRS survey, which was selected bythe same criteria, shows that the region studied contains a considerableoverdensity of galaxies from 2000 to 6000 km/s. This result is in goodagreement with the 'great attractor' model suggested by Lynden-Bell etal. (1988) which attributes the peculiar motions of elliptical galaxiesover a large region of space to an extensive mass overdensity whichincludes the Hydra-Centaurus and Pavo-Indus superclusters. The centroidof the density enhancement is also consistent with new data by Dresslerand Faber (1990) of peculiar motions of elliptical and spiral galaxies,both of which show a zero crossing of the Hubble line at approximately4500-5000 km/s.

Radio absorption by the intergalactic medium
The IR-radio correlation for spiral galaxies has been used to measurethe absorption of 1.49-GHz radiation by the intergalactic medium.Contrary to conventional expectation, a sample of 237 galaxies shows astrong inverse correlation of radio luminosity (at a given IRluminosity) with distance, Lr = about D exp -0.4, over a range ofdistances from 0.7-55 Mpc. Strong absorption by the intergalactic mediumis the only reasonable explanation of this correlation, which isstatistically significant at the 2 x 10 to the -12th level.

The Hubble relation - Differences between galaxy types SB and SC
It is shown that the Sb galaxies have apparent magnitudes which varyalmost exactly as if their redshifts were a measure of the distance atwhich they are observed, while the Sc do not exhibit a linear Hubblerelation. An attempt is made to determine whether the Sc discordancefrom the Hubble law is caused by Malmquist bias operating in thisfainter luminosity class of galaxies or there are inherent fundamentalpeculiarities. To this purpose the search is undertaken for other kindsof galaxies physically associated which these deviating Sc's. It isshown that luminosity criterion (Tully-Fisher) gives much smallerdistances for these galaxies than their redshifts do. The interaction ofspecific high redshift ScI's with nearby galaxies is presented as anindependent proof that ScI's are generally small, low luminositygalaxies.

Models for infrared emission from IRAS galaxies
The far-infrared spectra of galaxies detected in four wavelength bandsby IRAS have been modeled in terms of a cool disk component, a warmerstarburst component, and a Seyfert component peaking at 25 microns.Although the models are found to fit the observed spectra of non-Seyfertand several Seyfert galaxies, a more complex geometry for the dustdistribution is indicated for NGC 1068 and many other Seyfert galaxies.In some cases, the dust in the narrow-line region has a nonsphericallysymmetric geometry.

Revised supernova rates in Shapley-Ames galaxies
Observations of 855 Shapley Ames galaxies made from November 1, 1980 toOctober 31, 1988, together with improved supernova luminosities, havebeen used to derive the frequency of supernovae of different types, andthe results are presented in tables. From a uniform database of 24supernovae discovered, the following SN rates are found, expressed in SNper century per 10 to the 10th L(B)(solar): SN Ia, 0.3; SN Ib, 0.3; andSN II, 1.0. The present data confirm the relatively high frequency of SNII in late-type galaxies that has been found by many previousinvestigators.

The Malmquist bias in the extragalactic distance scale - Controversies and misconceptions
Several critical statements about the authors' work on the Malmquistbias in the Tully-Fisher (TF) relation are examined. Theoreticalproblems with the bias and evidence for the bias are reviewed, and theconcept of the normalized distance is discussed. The determination ofH(0) from the plateau data is addressed, and the slope of the B-band TFrelation is examined. The cluster population incompleteness bias isdiscussed. It is shown that the criticisms are unjustified.

A 1.49 GHz atlas of spiral galaxies with B(T) = +12 or less and delta = -45 deg or greater
The VLA has been used in its most compact D- and C/D-configurations tomake low-resolution 1.49 GHz maps of the spiral galaxies north of delta= -45 deg and brighter than B(T) = +12, the completeness limit of theRevised Shapley-Ames Catalog. Most of these maps are confusion-limitedat sigma = 0.1 mJy or greater per beam, and at least 94 percent of thegalaxies were detected with S = 1 mJy or greater. The maps havesufficient sensitivity to low-brightness emission that accurate radio'photometry' is possible. An atlas of contour maps, a table of totalflux densities plus other radio source parameters, and references topublished radio maps are given.

The supernova rate in Shapley-Ames galaxies
A visual search for SNs in 748 Shapley-Ames galaxies during the 5-yearperiod from November 1, 1980 to October 31, 1985 has yielded SN rates of0.3h-squared, 0.4h-squared, and 1.1h-squared for objects of types Ia,Ib, and II, respectively. These data are judged to imply that Tammann's(1974, 1982) SN rates are probably too high by a factor of about 3. Fora Galactic luminosity of 2 x 10 to the 10th solar L(B), the predicted SNrates in the Milky Way system are 0.6h-squared, 0.8h-squared, and2.2h-squared/century, respectively, for the three aforementioned types.

A comparative study of the stellar content in normal and active nuclei of spiral galaxies
Spectrophotometry and UBV photometry of the central region of spiralgalaxies are presented. The sample consists of the Seyfert galaxies NGC1566, 3783 and IC 4329A, as well as NGC 1097, 2997, and 5236 containingpeculiar nuclei, and NGC 5530, 5643, and 6699 with normal nuclei. Thestellar composition of the nuclei was derived by treating the equivalentwidths of a sample of absorption lines with the method of constrainednonlinear optimization. The observed continua and the UBV colors werecompared with the theoretical results in order to obtain the internalreddening and determine the contribution of the hot gas or nonthermalradiation. The age of the last cycle of star formation, the internalabsorption, and the theoretical relations M/L and H/K Ca II, presentdifferences among the three types of nuclei.

The Malmquist bias and the value of H0 from the Tully-Fisher relation
A large sample (n = 395) of spiral (Sab to Sd type) galaxies havingcorrected apparent magnitudes B-zero-sub-T and 21-cm line data (HI linewidths and radial velocities) is used to investigate in a new way theinfluence of the Malmquist bias on the determination of theextragalactic distance scale and the Hubble constant derived from theapplication of the B-band Tully-Fisher relation. This effect is clearlyidentified by using relative kinematic distances derived from aclassical local velocity field model and the concept of normalizedrelative kinematic distance. It results in an unbiased estimate of theHubble constant H0 which appears quite insensitive to the parameters(mean velocity of Virgo and infall velocity of the Local Group towardVirgo) adapted for the local velocity field model. A similar effect isfound from a sample of galaxies (n = 72) which are 'sosies' of 14primary galaxies. It is suggested that the presently derived H0represents the global value of the Hubble constant.

Southern Galaxy Catalogue.
Not Available

H I line studies of galaxies. IV - Distance moduli of 468 disk galaxies
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1985A&AS...59...43B&db_key=AST

The dependence on distance and redshift of the velocity vectors of the sun, the Galaxy, and the Local Group with respect to different extragalactic frames of reference
The solar apex S is confirmed to move steadily from S-prime toS-asterisk, when the mean redshift of the reference frame increases fromsmall to large values, on the basis of a new analysis of the solarmotion and Hubble ratio. Most of the change takes place in the 0-4000km/sec interval. The velocity vectors increase steadily, and thedirections of the apexes drift progressively as the mean distance orredshift of the reference frame increases. The frame of referencedefined by galaxies at z greater than 0.01 is essentially at rest withrespect to background radiation, suggesting that any intrinsic dipolaranisotropy of the background radiation is probably less than about0.0001.

H I line studies of galaxies. III - Distance moduli of 822 disk galaxies
The distance scale established on the basis of a distance moduli catalog(for 822 galaxies) that was derived from 21-cm line widths via theB-band Tully-Fisher relation is compared with several independent scaleshaving a common zero point, that are based on the indicators forluminosity index, redshift, ring diameters, brightest superassociations,and effective diameters. These are in excellent systematic agreement,and confirm the linearity of the H I scale in the 24-35 modulusinterval, but indicate a small systematic zero point difference of about0.2 mag, which must be added to the H I moduli to place them on the same'short' distance scale defined by the others.

Distance of M83 and of the Centaurus group
The distances of eight probable or possible bright members of theCentaurus group of galaxies are derived from secondary and tertiaryindicators and from redshifts. The best determined distance is that ofM83, and this group centered at supergalactic coordinates L = 154 degand B = -2 deg covers an elongated area parallel to the supergalacticplane, and has a depth of approximately 2 Mpc in the line of sight. TheFourcade-Figueroa galaxy is probably a background object and theCircinus galaxy is probably a field galaxy, but additional membersbetween it and the group may be hidden near the galactic plane. Thevelocity dispersion may be interpreted as evidence for stability (boundgroup) or instability (expanding association or accidental grouping).The presence of three early-type systems in a group dominated bylate-type spirals and magellanic irregulars is unusual and suggestive ofa chance encounter.

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Right ascension:14h18m27.10s
Aparent dimensions:4.677′ × 2.089′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 5530

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