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HI content in galaxies in loose groups
Gas deficiency in cluster spirals is well known and ram-pressurestripping is considered the main gas removal mechanism. In some compactgroups too gas deficiency is reported. However, gas deficiency in loosegroups is not yet well established. Lower dispersion of the membervelocities and the lower density of the intragroup medium in small loosegroups favour tidal stripping as the main gas removal process in them.Recent releases of data from the HI Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS) andcatalogues of nearby loose groups with associated diffuse X-ray emissionhave allowed us to test this notion. In this paper, we address thefollowing questions: (i) do galaxies in groups with diffuse X-rayemission statistically have lower gas content compared to the ones ingroups without diffuse X-ray emission? (ii) does HI deficiency vary withthe X-ray luminosity, LX, of the loose group in a systematicway? We find that (i) galaxies in groups with diffuse X-ray emission, onaverage, are HI deficient, and have lost more gas compared to those ingroups without X-ray emission; the latter are found not to havesignificant HI deficiency; (ii) no systematic dependence of the HIdeficiency with LX is found. Ram-pressure-assisted tidalstripping and evaporation by thermal conduction are the two possiblemechanisms to account for this excess gas loss.

Star Formation Histories of Early-Type Galaxies. I. Higher Order Balmer Lines as Age Indicators
We have obtained blue integrated spectra of 175 nearby early-typegalaxies, covering a wide range in galaxy velocity dispersion andemphasizing those with σ<100 km s-1. Galaxies havebeen observed both in the Virgo Cluster and in lower densityenvironments. The main goals are the evaluation of higher order Balmerlines as age indicators and differences in stellar populations as afunction of mass, environment, and morphology. In this first paper, ouremphasis is on presenting the methods used to characterize the behaviorof the Balmer lines through evolutionary population synthesis models.Lower σ galaxies exhibit a substantially greater intrinsicscatter, in a variety of line-strength indicators, than do higherσ galaxies, with the large intrinsic scatter setting in below aσ of 100 km s-1. Moreover, a greater contrast inscatter is present in the Balmer lines than in the lines of metalfeatures. Evolutionary synthesis modeling of the observed spectralindexes indicates that the strong Balmer lines found primarily among thelow-σ galaxies are caused by young age, rather than by lowmetallicity. Thus we find a trend between the population age and thecentral velocity dispersion, such that low-σ galaxies have youngerluminosity-weighted mean ages. We have repeated this analysis usingseveral different Balmer lines and find consistent results from onespectral indicator to another.

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.

X-ray luminosities of galaxies in groups
We have derived the X-ray luminosities of a sample of galaxies ingroups, making careful allowance for contaminating intragroup emission.The LX:LB and LX:LFIRrelations of spiral galaxies in groups appear to be indistinguishablefrom those in other environments, however the elliptical galaxies fallinto two distinct classes. The first class is central-dominant groupgalaxies, which are very X-ray luminous and may be the focus of groupcooling flows. All other early-type galaxies in groups belong to thesecond class, which populates an almost constant band ofLX/LB over the range9.8

Starbursts versus Truncated Star Formation in Nearby Clusters of Galaxies
We present long-slit spectroscopy, B- and R-bandpass imaging, and 21 cmobservations of a sample of early-type galaxies in nearby clusters,which are known to be either in a star-forming phase or to have had starformation that recently terminated. From the long-slit spectra, obtainedwith the Blanco 4 m telescope, we find that emission lines in thestar-forming cluster galaxies are significantly more centrallyconcentrated than in a sample of field galaxies. The broadband imagingreveals that two currently star-forming early-type galaxies in thePegasus I cluster have blue nuclei, again indicating that recent starformation has been concentrated. In contrast, the two galaxies for whichstar formation has already ended show no central color gradient. ThePegasus I galaxy with the most evident signs of ongoing star formation(NGC 7648), exhibits signatures of a tidal encounter. Neutral hydrogenobservations of that galaxy with the Arecibo radio telescope reveal thepresence of ~4×108 Msolar of H I. Areciboobservations of other current or recent star-forming early-type galaxiesin Pegasus I indicate smaller amounts of gas in one of them, and onlyupper limits in others. These observations indicate that NGC 7648 in thePegasus I cluster owes its present star formation episode to some formof tidal interaction. The same may be true for the other galaxies withcentralized star formation, but we cannot rule out the possibility thattheir outer disks have been removed via ram pressure stripping, followedby rapid quenching of star formation in the central region.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Groups of galaxies. III. Some empirical characteristics.
Not Available

The Universality of the Fundamental Plane of E and S0 Galaxies: Spectroscopic Data
We present central velocity dispersion measurements for 325 early-typegalaxies in eight clusters and groups of galaxies, including newobservations for 212 galaxies. The clusters and groups are the A262,A1367, Coma (A1656), A2634, Cancer, and Pegasus Clusters and the NGC 383and NGC 507 Groups. The new measurements were derived frommedium-dispersion spectra that cover 600 Å centered on the Mg I btriplet at lambda ~ 5175 Å. Velocity dispersions were measuredusing the Tonry & Davis cross-correlation method, with a typicalaccuracy of 6%. A detailed comparison with other data sources is made.

The Universality of the Fundamental Plane of E and S0 Galaxies: Sample Definition and I-Band Photometric Data
As part of a project to compare the fundamental plane and Tully-Fisherdistance scales, we present here I-band CCD photometry for 636early-type galaxies in eight clusters and groups of galaxies. These arethe A262, A1367, Coma (A1656), A2634, Cancer and Pegasus Clusters, andthe NGC 383 and NGC 507 Groups. Sample selection, cluster properties,and cluster membership assignment criteria are discussed. We presentphotometric parameters that are used in the fundamental plane relation,the effective radius r_e, and the effective surface brightness mu_e, asderived from a r^1/4 fit to the observed radial photometric profile ofeach galaxy. A comparison with similar data found in the literature forthe Coma Cluster shows that large systematic uncertainties can beintroduced in the measurement of r_e and mu_e by the particular methodused to derive those parameters. However, the particular combination ofthese two parameters that enters in the fundamental plane relation is aquantity that can be measured with high accuracy.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

An Einstein X-Ray Survey of Optically Selected Galaxies. I. Data
We present the results of a complete Einstein imaging proportionalcounter X-ray survey of optically selected galaxies from theShapley-Ames Catalog, the Uppsala General Catalogue, and the EuropeanSouthern Observatory Catalog. Well-defined optical criteria are used toselect the galaxies, and X-ray fluxes are measured at the opticallydefined positions. The result is a comprehensive list of X-ray detectionand upper limit measurements for 1018 galaxies. Of these, 827 haveeither independent distance estimates or radial velocities. Associatedoptical, redshift, and distance data have been assembled for thesegalaxies, and their distances come from a combination of directlypredicted distances and those predicted from the Faber-Burstein GreatAttractor/Virgocentric infall model. The accuracy of the X-ray fluxeshas been checked in three different ways; all are consistent with thederived X-ray fluxes being of <=0.1 dex accuracy. In particular,there is agreement with previously published X-ray fluxes for galaxiesin common with a 1991 study by Roberts et al. and a 1992 study byFabbiano et al. The data presented here will be used in further studiesto characterize the X-ray output of galaxies of various morphologicaltypes and thus to enable the determination of the major sourcescontributing to the X-ray emission from galaxies.

Photoelectric UBV Photometry of Galaxies in the Clusters Pegasus I, Pegasus II, Abell 262, Abell 1367, and Abell 2197-9
This paper presents photoelectric UBV multiaperture photometry of 144galaxies, 139 of which are associated with six nearby bright clusters.The observations were made at the McDonald Observatory from 1986September to 1987 November and were part of the production of the ThirdReference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3). The observations were usedto compute total magnitudes and color indices published in RC3. Theobservations can also be used to calibrate CCD images.

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

Integrated photoelectric magnitudes and color indices of bright galaxies in the Johnson UBV system
The photoelectric total magnitudes and color indices published in theThird Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) are based on ananalysis of approximately equals 26,000 B, 25,000 B-V, and 17,000 U-Bmultiaperture measurements available up to mid 1987 from nearly 350sources. This paper provides the full details of the analysis andestimates of internal and external errors in the parameters. Thederivation of the parameters is based on techniques described by theVaucouleurs & Corwin (1977) whereby photoelectric multiaperture dataare fitted by mean Hubble-type-dependent curves which describe theintegral of the B-band flux and the typical B-V and U-B integrated colorgradients. A sophisticated analysis of the residuals of thesemeasurements from the curves was made to allow for the random andsystematic errors that effect such data. The result is a homogeneous setof total magnitudes BTA total colors(B-V)T and (U-B)T, and effective colors(B-V)e and (U-B)e for more than 3000 brightgalaxies in RC3.

A revised catalog of CfA1 galaxy groups in the Virgo/Great Attractor flow field
A new identification of groups and clusters in the CfA1 Catalog ofHuchra et al. is presented, using a percolation algorithm to identifydensity enhancements. It is shown that in the resulting catalog,contamination by interlopers is significantly reduced. The Schechterluminosity function is redetermined, including the Malmquist bias.

General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.

An X-ray catalog and atlas of galaxies
An X-ray catalog and atlas of galaxies observed with the EinsteinObservatory imaging instruments (IPC and HRI) are presented. The catalogcomprises 493 galaxies, including targets of pointed observations, andRSA or RC2 galaxies serendipitously included in Einstein fields. A totalof 450 of these galaxies were imaged well within the instrumentalfields, resulting in 238 detections and 2123 sigma upper limits. Theother galaxies were either at the edge of the visible field of view orconfused with other X-ray sources. For these a rough measure of theirX-ray emission is also given. The atlas shows X-ray contour maps ofdetected galaxies superposed on optical photographs and givesazimuthally averaged surface brightness profiles of galaxies detectedwith a high signal-to-noise ratio.

H I content and FIR emission of S0 galaxies
A sample of 252 S0 galaxies is used to study the relationship between HI content and far-IR emission. Logarithms of the H I content versus thefar-IR emission are employed statistically to develop a best-fit linearregression line which is compared to a slope of approximately unity. Theslopes are different for S0 and SB0 galaxies versus S0/a and SB0/agalaxies. The distribution of the 60-100 micron flux ratio is notsignificantly affected by the presence or absence of bars nor by thedifferences between the S0 and S0/a systems. The flux ratio is higherthan the critical value of Helou in 34 percent of the cases, and thevalue holds when nuclear emission is taken into account. In cases wherethe critical value is exceeded, most far-IR emissions are expected to bedue to star formation. S0 galaxies are generally found to have a normalISM, except where the systems have accreted their H I gas. Systems withdisproportionate FIR emission can be considered galaxies that areexperiencing enhanced star formation or that have had their H I gasswept away.

The Butcher-Oemler effect in a nearby cluster of galaxies?
The integrated spectra of early-type galaxies in the nearby Abell 262,Pegasus I, and Virgo clusters are compared with those of several 'field'galaxies. The spectra of five galaxies in Pegasus I and one galaxy inthe Virgo Cluster show evidence of recent star formation. The averageblue magnitude for the star-forming galaxies is M(B) = -20. Thestar-formation activity in Pegasus I is found to be similar to that ofstarburst and poststarburst galaxies in Butcher-Oemler clusters atredshifts greater than 2.

On the relationship between radio emission and optical properties in early-type galaxies
To study the origin of radio activity in early-type galaxies, thepossible dependence of their radio emission on basic optical parameters,such as the absolute magnitude, the central velocity dispersion sigma,and the mean surface brightness mu is explored. A sample of 743 E and SOgalaxies is used which is based on three independent radio surveys ofoptically selected galaxies with virtually complete information onmagnitudes, morphological types, redshift distances, diameters, andradio fluxes. For both E and SO galaxies, only the absolute magnitudeappears to be directly related to the radio activity, while sigma and mudo not. Also, a significant dependence of the apparent flattening onradio power is confirmed for E galaxies. Some relevant implications ofthese results are discussed.

Determination of the relative spectrophotometric gradients of galaxies. IV
Relative spectrophotometric gradients of continua are determined for 195galaxies. The spectra have been obtained with the 70-cm meniscustelescope of the Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory using a 2-degpreobjective prism (the reverse linear dispersion was 1200 A/mm inH-gamma). The gradient values were reduced to the AO spectral class andcorrected for light absorption in the Galaxy.

Spectroscopy and photometry of elliptical galaxies. III - UBV aperture photometry, CCD photometry, and magnitude-related parameters
Photoelectric aperture photometry of nearly 2000 individual observationsof 449 elliptical galaxies combined with published measurements usingthe self-consistent UVB color catalog developed by Burstein et al.(1987) are presented. The data are placed on a standard magnitude andcolor system, and 'total' magnitudes and effective diameters are derivedby comparison with the standard elliptical magnitude growth curve. Agraphical representation of the standard growth curve and the residualsfrom it for each galaxy are given, and a new diameter measurement Dn ispresented which can be measured reliably for elliptical galaxies andserves as an accurate distance indicator when combined with centralvelocity dispersion. Individual magnitudes, surface brightnesses,effective diameters, and values of Dn are summarized for each galaxy incatalog form.

The statistical distribution of the neutral-hydrogen content of S0 galaxies
The distribution of relative global H I content M(H I)/L(B) has beenderived for galaxies of types S0 and S0/a using a data set derived fromrecent H I observations in the literature. The relative H I content ofthese galaxies is found to show transitional properties betweenelliptical and spiral galaxies. The distribution of M(H I)/L(B) forS0/a's resembles that for spirals, and these galaxies may represent'fossil' spirals, i.e., galaxies whose gas has been severely depleted bystar formation. The distribution for S0's, however, resembles that forellipticals. The form of this distribution strongly suggests an externalorigin for most of the H I in S0 galaxies.

A catalog of radio, optical, and infrared observations of spiral galaxies in clusters
The results of a major observational program on the luminosities,colors, and gas contents of spiral galaxies in clusters of galaxies arepresented. The data have been used as part of a detailed investigationinto the nature of cluster spirals and for revisions of the distancescale using the infrared Tully-Fisher relation. The observationalstrategies, reduction procedures, and sources or error are brieflydiscussed. The data include 21-cm H I observations, UBVR multiaperturephotometry, and H-band photometry of several hunderd spiral galaxies in10 clusters.

A survey of galaxy redshifts. IV - The data
The complete list of the best available radial velocities for the 2401galaxies in the merged Zwicky-Nilson catalog brighter than 14.5mz and with b (II) above +40 deg or below -30 deg ispresented. Almost 60 percent of the redshifts are from the CfA surveyand are accurate to typically 35 km/s.

Spiral galaxies in clusters. III - Gas-rich galaxies in the Pegasus I cluster of galaxies. IV - The H I color properties of spirals in nine clusters
Results of a 21-cm and optical survey of disk galaxies in the vicinityof the Pegasus I cluster of galaxies is reported, in addition to theresults of a 21-cm H I and UBV photometric survey of 235 disk galaxiesin nine nearby clusters. A substantial number of blue, gas-rich galaxiesare revealed for the Pegasus I cluster, and with few exceptions, thedisk systems in the cluster retain large amounts of neutral hydrogen,which suggests that environmental processes have not yet removedsubstantial amounts of gas from these disk galaxies. The analysis of 235disk galaxies in nearby clusters indicates that most of the clusters donot preferentially contain gas deficient spirals. The large amount of HI retained by the galaxies is not well correlated with color.

Spiral galaxies in clusters. II - Neutral hydrogen observations in Cancer, Hercules /A 2151/, and Pegasus I
H I observations with the 305-m Arecibo telescope are reported of 67spiral galaxies in Abell 2151 (Hercules), Peg I, and the Cancerclusters. Systemic velocities, linewidths, and hydrogen masses arecomputed for the 37 galaxies detected, and upper limits on the H Icontent are derived for nondetections. The H I properties of galaxies inPeg I and Cancer are found to closely resemble those of standard, nearby'field' samples. In particular, the distance-independent qualityMH/L sub pg is in essence identical in these fields andcluster samples. Sensitivity to H I for the more distant Herculescluster is much lower, but the present results reveal only one galaxywith a value of MH/L sub pg higher than expected from thestandard sample, while several are lower than expected. It is not clearwhether this is a result of the higher luminosities of these spirals orof other conditions in the cluster.

A Survey of Elliptical Galaxies at 6 CM
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1973A&A....24..247E&db_key=AST

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:23h19m36.60s
Aparent dimensions:1.585′ × 0.617′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 7611

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