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Objective Classification of Spiral Galaxies Having Extended Rotation Curves Beyond the Optical Radius
We carry out an objective classification of four samples of spiralgalaxies having extended rotation curves beyond the optical radius. Amultivariate statistical analysis (viz., principal component analysis[PCA]) shows that about 96% of the total variation is due to twocomponents, one being the combination of absolute blue magnitude andmaximum rotational velocity beyond the optical region and the otherbeing the central density of the halo. On the basis of PCA a fundamentalplane has been constructed that reduces the scatter in the Tully-Fisherrelation up to a maximum of 16%. A multiple stepwise regression analysisof the variation of the overall shape of the rotation curves shows thatit is mainly determined by the central surface brightness, while theshape purely in the outer part of the galaxy (beyond the optical radius)is mainly determined by the size of the galactic disk.

Dark matter in early-type galaxies: dynamical modelling of IC 1459, IC 3370, NGC 3379 and NGC 4105
We analyse long-slit spectra of four early-type galaxies which extendfrom ~1 to 3 effective radii: IC 1459; IC 3370; NGC 3379 and NGC 4105.We have extracted the full line-of-sight velocity distribution (in thecase of NGC 3379 we also used data from the literature), which we modelusing the two-integral approach. Using two-integral modelling, we findno strong evidence for dark haloes, but the fits suggest thatthree-integral modelling is necessary. We also find that the inferredconstant mass-to-light ratio in all the four cases is typical forearly-type galaxies. Finally, we also discuss the constraints on themass-to-light ratio, which can be obtained using X-ray haloes in thecase of IC 1459, NGC 3379 and NGC 4105, and compare the estimated valueswith the predictions from the dynamical modelling.

Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources in Nearby Galaxies from ROSAT High Resolution Imager Observations I. Data Analysis
X-ray observations have revealed in other galaxies a class ofextranuclear X-ray point sources with X-ray luminosities of1039-1041 ergs s-1, exceeding theEddington luminosity for stellar mass X-ray binaries. Theseultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) may be powered by intermediate-massblack holes of a few thousand Msolar or stellar mass blackholes with special radiation processes. In this paper, we present asurvey of ULXs in 313 nearby galaxies withD25>1' within 40 Mpc with 467 ROSAT HighResolution Imager (HRI) archival observations. The HRI observations arereduced with uniform procedures, refined by simulations that help definethe point source detection algorithm employed in this survey. A sampleof 562 extragalactic X-ray point sources withLX=1038-1043 ergs s-1 isextracted from 173 survey galaxies, including 106 ULX candidates withinthe D25 isophotes of 63 galaxies and 110 ULX candidatesbetween 1D25 and 2D25 of 64 galaxies, from which aclean sample of 109 ULXs is constructed to minimize the contaminationfrom foreground or background objects. The strong connection betweenULXs and star formation is confirmed based on the striking preference ofULXs to occur in late-type galaxies, especially in star-forming regionssuch as spiral arms. ULXs are variable on timescales over days to yearsand exhibit a variety of long term variability patterns. Theidentifications of ULXs in the clean sample show some ULXs identified assupernovae (remnants), H II regions/nebulae, or young massive stars instar-forming regions, and a few other ULXs identified as old globularclusters. In a subsequent paper, the statistic properties of the surveywill be studied to calculate the occurrence frequencies and luminosityfunctions for ULXs in different types of galaxies to shed light on thenature of these enigmatic sources.

Star formation history in early-type galaxies - I. The line absorption indices diagnostics
To unravel the formation mechanism and the evolutionary history ofelliptical galaxies (EGs) is one of the goals of modern astrophysics. Ina simplified picture of the issue, the question to be answered iswhether they have formed by hierarchical merging of pre-existingsubstructures (maybe disc galaxies) made of stars and gas, with eachmerging event probably accompanied by strong star formation, orconversely, whether they originated from the early aggregation of lumpsof gas turned into stars in the remote past via a burst-like episodeever since followed by quiescence so as to mimic a sort of monolithicprocess. Even if the two alternatives seem to oppose each other,actually they may both contribute to shaping the final properties of EGsas seen today. Are there distinct signatures of the underlying dominantprocess in the observational data? To this aim we have examined the lineabsorption indices on the Lick system of the normal, field EGs of Tragerand the interacting EGs (pair- and shell-objects) of Longhetti et al.The data show that both normal, field and interacting galaxies have thesame scattered but smooth distribution in the Hβ versus [MgFe]plane even if the interacting ones show a more pronounced tail towardhigh Hβ values. This may suggest that a common physical cause is atthe origin of their distribution. There are two straightforwardinterpretations of increasing complexity. (i) EGs span true large rangesof ages and metallicities. A young age is the signature of theaggregation mechanism, each event accompanied by metal enrichment. Thissimple scheme cannot, however, explain other spectro-photometricproperties of EGs and has to be discarded. (ii) The bulk population ofstars is old but subsequent episodes of star formation scatter the EGsin the diagnostic planes. However, this scheme would predict anoutstanding clump at low Hβ values, contrary to what is observed.The model can be cured by supposing that the primary star formationactivity lasted for a significant fraction of the Hubble time (5<=T<= 13 Gyr) accompanied by global metal enrichment. The`younger' galaxies are more metal-rich. The later burst of starformation should be small otherwise too many high-Hβ objects wouldbe observed. Therefore, the distribution of normal, pair- andshell-galaxies in the Hβ versus [MgFe] plane is due to global metalenrichment. Even though the above schemes provide a formal explanation,they seem to be too demanding because of the many ad hoc ingredientsthat have to be introduced. Furthermore, they neglect theobservationally grounded hint that the stellar content of EGs is likelyto be enhanced in α-elements with [α/Fe] ranging from 0.1 to0.4 dex. Here we propose a new scheme, in which the bulk dispersion ofgalaxies in the Hβ versus [MgFe] plane is caused by a differentmean degree of enhancement. In this model, neither the large age rangesnor the universal enrichment law for the old component are required andthe observed distribution along Hβ is naturally recovered.Furthermore, later bursts of stellar activity are a rare event,involving only those galaxies with very high Hβ (roughly >2.5).Finally, simulations of the scatter in broad-band colours of EGs seem toconfirm that the bulk stars have formed in the remote past, and thatmergers and companion star formation in a recent past are not likely,unless the intensity of the secondary activity is very small.

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Circular-Aperture Photometry
We present R-band CCD photometry for 1332 early-type galaxies, observedas part of the ENEAR survey of peculiar motions using early-typegalaxies in the nearby universe. Circular apertures are used to tracethe surface brightness profiles, which are then fitted by atwo-component bulge-disk model. From the fits, we obtain the structuralparameters required to estimate galaxy distances using theDn-σ and fundamental plane relations. We find thatabout 12% of the galaxies are well represented by a pure r1/4law, while 87% are best fitted by a two-component model. There are 356repeated observations of 257 galaxies obtained during different runsthat are used to derive statistical corrections and bring the data to acommon system. We also use these repeated observations to estimate ourinternal errors. The accuracy of our measurements are tested by thecomparison of 354 galaxies in common with other authors. Typical errorsin our measurements are 0.011 dex for logDn, 0.064 dex forlogre, 0.086 mag arcsec-2 for<μe>, and 0.09 for mRC,comparable to those estimated by other authors. The photometric datareported here represent one of the largest high-quality and uniformall-sky samples currently available for early-type galaxies in thenearby universe, especially suitable for peculiar motion studies.Based on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO),National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF);European Southern Observatory (ESO); Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory(FLWO); and the MDM Observatory on Kitt Peak.

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

A catalogue and analysis of local galaxy ages and metallicities
We have assembled a catalogue of relative ages, metallicities andabundance ratios for about 150 local galaxies in field, group andcluster environments. The galaxies span morphological types from cD andellipticals, to late-type spirals. Ages and metallicities were estimatedfrom high-quality published spectral line indices using Worthey &Ottaviani (1997) single stellar population evolutionary models. Theidentification of galaxy age as a fourth parameter in the fundamentalplane (Forbes, Ponman & Brown 1998) is confirmed by our largersample of ages. We investigate trends between age and metallicity, andwith other physical parameters of the galaxies, such as ellipticity,luminosity and kinematic anisotropy. We demonstrate the existence of agalaxy age-metallicity relation similar to that seen for local galacticdisc stars, whereby young galaxies have high metallicity, while oldgalaxies span a large range in metallicities. We also investigate theinfluence of environment and morphology on the galaxy age andmetallicity, especially the predictions made by semi-analytichierarchical clustering models (HCM). We confirm that non-clusterellipticals are indeed younger on average than cluster ellipticals aspredicted by the HCM models. However we also find a trend for the moreluminous galaxies to have a higher [Mg/Fe] ratio than the lowerluminosity galaxies, which is opposite to the expectation from HCMmodels.

ROSAT-HRI observations of six southern galaxy pairs
We present the detailed analysis of the X-ray data for 6 pairs, isolatedor in poor groups, observed at high resolution with the ROSAT HRI . Inall cases, the stronger X-ray source is associated with the brighterearly-type member and is extended. The extent varies from galactic togroup scale, from 3 (RR 210b) to 182 kpc( RR 22a). The fainter membersare detected only in two pairs, RR 210 and RR 259. Except for one case,no significant substructures have been detected in the X-ray maps,possibly also as a consequence of the poor statistics. The core radii ofthe X-ray surface brightness profiles are in the range 1-3 kpc. Thedistribution of the luminosities of galaxies in pairs encompasses a verywide range of both luminosities and LX / LBratios, in spite of the very small number of objects studied so far. Ourdata provide no evidence that pair membership affects the X-rayproperties of galaxies. Observation are discussed in the context of thepair/group evolution.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Line-of-sight velocity distributions of 53 early-type galaxies
55 long-slit spectra of 53 early-type galaxies were observed at LaSilla/ESO and reduced using standard methods. The line-of-sight velocitydistributions (LOSVDs) were measured using the fourier quotient methodand the fourier fitting method as described by van der Marel et al.(\cite{vdmarel93}). 32% of the examined galaxies contain kinematicallydecoupled stellar omponents, the size of these cores was 0.40 +/- 0.28kpc, in each case the core was smaller than 1 kpc. Analysis of thekinematics reveals in 49% of the sample galaxies the signature of astellar disk component, in 15% this is uncertain. There is evidence thatthe phenomenon of kinematically decoupled components is present in thewhole class of early-type galaxies. Several correlations betweenphotometric and kinematic parameters like the (v/sigma )* vs.epsilon diagram, the anisotropy - luminosity correlation or kappa -spacewere as well examined using measurement results for spectroscopic dataand photometric data out of literature. It is also shown that thosesample galaxies with kinematically decoupled components are more likelyto be found in groups of high density, strengthening the assumption thatsuch components are remnants of merging events. Full Fig. 6 is onlyavailable at http://www.edpsciences.org

Star formation history of early-type galaxies in low density environments. IV. What do we learn from nuclear line-strength indices?
In this paper we analyze the line-strength indices in the Lick-systemmeasured by Longhetti et al. (1998a, b) for a sample of 51 early-typegalaxies located in low density environments (LDE) and showingsignatures of fine structures and/or interactions. The sample contains21 shell-galaxies and 30 members of interacting pairs. Firstly weperform a preliminary comparison between three different sources ofcalibrations of the line strength indices, namely Buzzoni et al. (1992,1994), Worthey (1992), Worthey et al. (1994) and Idiart et al. (1995),derived from stars with different effective temperature, gravity, andmetallicity. Looking at the three indices in common, i.e. Mg2, Fe5270,and Hβ , the calibrations by Buzzoni et al. (1992, 1994), Worthey(1992) and Worthey et al. (1994) lead to mutually consistent results.The calibration of Hβ by Idiart et al. (1995) can be compared withthe previous ones only for a limited range of ages, in which goodagreement is found. Mg2 and Mgb indices predicted by the Idiart's et al.(1995) fitting functions result to be systematically lower than thoseobtained from using Worthey (1992) calibrations. Secondly, we discussthe properties of the galaxies in our sample by comparing them both withtheoretical Single Stellar Populations (SSPs) and the normal galaxies ofthe González (1993: G93) sample. The analysis is performed bymeans of several diagnostic planes. In the sigma , Mg2, Fe5270 andFe5335 space, normal, shell- and pair-galaxies have a differentbehavior. First of all, normal and pair-galaxies follow the universalsigma vs. Mg2 relation, whereas shell-galaxies lie above it; secondlythe Fe versus Mg2 relation of normal, shell- and pair-galaxies isflatter than the theoretical expectation. This fact hints forenhancement of alpha -elements with respect to solar partition ingalaxies with strong Fe indices and/or high velocity dispersion, massand luminosity in turn. In the sigma vs. Hβ plane normal galaxiesseem to follow a nice relation suggesting that objects with shallowgravitational potential have strong Hβ values (youth signature?),whereas shell- and pair-galaxies scatter all over the plane. A group ofgalaxies with deep gravitational potential and strong Hβ is found.Is this a signature of recent star formation? In the Hβ vs. [MgFe]plane, which is perhaps best suited to infer the age of the stellarpopulations, the peculiar galaxies in our sample show nearly the samedistribution of the normal galaxies in the G93 sample. There is howevera number of peculiar galaxies with much stronger Hβ . Does thismean that the scatter in the Hβ vs. [MgFe] plane, of normal, shell-and pair-galaxies has a common origin, perhaps a secondary episode ofstar formation? We suggest that, owing to their apparent youth, shell-and pair-galaxies should have experienced at least one interaction eventafter their formation. The explanation comes natural for shell- andpair-galaxies where the signatures of interactions are evident. It ismore intrigued in normal galaxies (perhaps other causes may concur).Noteworthy, the distribution in the Hβ vs. [MgFe] plane of normal,shell- and pair-galaxies is confined within a narrow strip that runssignificantly steeper than the path followed by aging SSPs. This featureis explained as due to metal enrichment always accompanying starformation. Shell-galaxies encompass the whole range of ages inferredfrom the Hβ vs. [MgFe] plane, indicating that among them recent andold interaction/acquisition events are equally probable. If shells areformed at the same time at which the rejuvenating event took place,shells ought to be long lasting phenomena. [MgFe] = sqrt { xMgb}, = (Fe5270 + Fe5335)/2 }

Star formation history of early-type galaxies in low density environments. V. Blue line-strength indices for the nuclear region
We analyze the star formation properties of a sample of 21 shellgalaxies and 30 early-type galaxies members of interacting pairs,located in low density environments (Longhetti et al. 1998a, 1998b). Thestudy is based on new models developed to interpret the informationcoming from `blue' Hdelta /FeI, H+K(CaII) and Delta 4000 line-strengthindices proposed by Rose (1984; 1985) and Hamilton (1985). We find thatthe last star forming event that occurred in the nuclear region of shellgalaxies is statistically old (from 0.1 up to several Gyr) with respectto the corresponding one in the sub-sample of pair galaxies (<0.1 Gyror even ongoing star formation). If the stellar activity is somehowrelated to the formation of shells, as predicted by several dynamicalmodels of galaxy interaction, shells have to be considered long lastingstructures. Since pair members show evidence of very recent starformation, we suggest that either large reservoirs of gas have to bepresent to maintain active star formation, if these galaxies are onperiodic orbits, or most of the pair members in the present sample areexperiencing unbound encounters. Table~2 is available in electronic formonly, at CDS: via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Bulge-Disk Decomposition of 659 Spiral and Lenticular Galaxy Brightness Profiles
We present one of the largest homogeneous sets of spiral and lenticulargalaxy brightness profile decompositions completed to date. The 659galaxies in our sample have been fitted with a de Vaucouleurs law forthe bulge component and an inner-truncated exponential for the diskcomponent. Of the 659 galaxies in the sample, 620 were successfullyfitted with the chosen fitting functions. The fits are generally welldefined, with more than 90% having rms deviations from the observedprofile of less than 0.35 mag. We find no correlations of fittingquality, as measured by these rms residuals, with either morphologicaltype or inclination. Similarly, the estimated errors of the fittedcoefficients show no significant trends with type or inclination. Thesedecompositions form a useful basis for the study of the lightdistributions of spiral and lenticular galaxies. The object base issufficiently large that well-defined samples of galaxies can be selectedfrom it.

A catalogue of Mg_2 indices of galaxies and globular clusters
We present a catalogue of published absorption-line Mg_2 indices ofgalaxies and globular clusters. The catalogue is maintained up-to-datein the HYPERCAT database. The measurements are listed together with thereferences to the articles where the data were published. A codeddescription of the observations is provided. The catalogue gathers 3541measurements for 1491 objects (galaxies or globular clusters) from 55datasets. Compiled raw data for 1060 galaxies are zero-point correctedand transformed to a homogeneous system. Tables 1, 3, and 4 areavailable in electronic form only at the CDS, Strasbourg, via anonymousftp Table 2 is available both in text and electronic form.

Star formation history of early-type galaxies in low density environments. II. Kinematics
The present paper is a companion of two others dedicated one to themeasurement of the line-strength indices \cite[(Longhetti et al.1997a)]{Lo7a} and the second to trace back the star formation history ofa sample of early-type galaxies by comparing observed indices to thepredictions of new spectro-photometric models \cite[(Longhetti et al.1997b).]{Lo7b} The sample of 51 early-type galaxies in low densityenvironments is composed of two sub-sets of galaxies: 21 shell galaxiesfrom the \cite[Malin & Carter (1983)]{Ma3} catalogue (one of whichshows double nucleous and has been considered as two separate objects)and 30 members of isolated interacting pairs from the \cite[Reduzzi& Rampazzo (1995)]{Re5} catalogue. Most of the objects show finestructures. The paper collects nuclear kinematic data together with thevelocity and velocity dispersion curves of the stellar and gaseouscomponents as a function of the distance from the galaxies centres. Thegalaxies heliocentric systemic velocity compares within -1+/- 32 kms(-1) with RC3 data, while their central velocity dispersion compareswithin 9+/- 9 km s(-1) , 10+/- 27 km s(-1) and 2+/- 33 km s(-1) with\cite[Gonzalez (1993),]{Go3} \cite[Davies et al. (1987)]{Da7} and\cite[Carter et al. (1988)]{Ca8} respectively. The detailed comparisonbetween our velocity and velocity dispersion curves and those fromseveral authors is discussed. 9 out of 22 shell galaxies nuclei showemission lines, 4 of which, using data in the literature, have lineratios characteristic of LINERs. 10 members of pairs out of 30 showemission lines. RR 331a has a Seyfert like nucleus, while for theremaining galaxies the ([O III] lambda 5007)/Hβ ratio ischaracteristic of low ionization regions. In a small fraction of theobjects the emission component is detectable outside the central value.None of the objects in the sample shows counter-rotation of the gaseousversus the stellar component. The two components appear associated,although, in two cases there is evidence that gas and stars lie ondifferent planes. This latter phenomenon could be associated toaccretion events. Emission lines in the central part of the RR 331a showa secondary component in the emission lines profile. E 2400100 has twonuclei embedded in the main body of the galaxy. The U-shape profile ofthe stellar velocity profile shows the ongoing interaction of the twonuclei. V/sigma profile of shell galaxies is, finally, discussed inrelation to the hypothesis of the accretion/merging origin of thesegalaxies. Based on observations obtained at ESO, La Silla, Chile. Dataand and kinematical profiles are available at CDS.

Star formation history of early-type galaxies in low density environments. I. Nuclear line-strength indices
This paper is the first of a series \cite[(Longhetti et al.1997a,b)]{lon97} dedicated to the study of the star formation history inearly-type galaxies which show fine structures and/or signatures ofinteraction. It presents nuclear line-strength indices for a samplecomposed of 21 shell galaxies, from the \cite[Malin & Carter(1983)]{mal83} southern survey, and 30 members of isolated interactingpairs, from the \cite[Reduzzi & Rampazzo (1995)]{red95} catalogue,located in low density environments. The spectral range covers 3700Angstroms < lambda < 5700 Angstroms at 2.1 Angstroms FWHMresolution. We measure 16 red (lambda > 4200 Angstroms) indicesdefined by the Lick Group. Measures have been transformed into theLick-IDS ``standard'' system. The procedure has been tested on a set of5 elliptical galaxies selected from the \cite[Gonzalez (1993)]{gon93}sample. We derive also three blue (lambda < 4200) indices, namelyDelta (4000 Angstroms) defined by \cite[Hamilton (1985)]{ham85},H+K(CaII) and Hdelta /FeI defined by \cite[Rose (1984, 1985)]{ros84}.Blue indices are correlated to the age of the last starburst occurred ina galaxy \cite[(Leonardi & Rose 1996)]{leo96}. The determination ofthese indices, the estimate of the measurement errors and the correctionfor the galaxies velocity dispersions are discussed in detail. In theAppendix A we present the indices for a set of hot stars (T> 10000 K)which may be used for extending W92 fitting functions toward hightemperatures. Based on observations obtained at ESO, La Silla, Chile.Tables 1-8 are also available in electronic form at CDS and Tables 9-15are only available in electronic form at CDS: via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

An Einstein X-Ray Survey of Optically Selected Galaxies. I. Data
We present the results of a complete Einstein imaging proportionalcounter X-ray survey of optically selected galaxies from theShapley-Ames Catalog, the Uppsala General Catalogue, and the EuropeanSouthern Observatory Catalog. Well-defined optical criteria are used toselect the galaxies, and X-ray fluxes are measured at the opticallydefined positions. The result is a comprehensive list of X-ray detectionand upper limit measurements for 1018 galaxies. Of these, 827 haveeither independent distance estimates or radial velocities. Associatedoptical, redshift, and distance data have been assembled for thesegalaxies, and their distances come from a combination of directlypredicted distances and those predicted from the Faber-Burstein GreatAttractor/Virgocentric infall model. The accuracy of the X-ray fluxeshas been checked in three different ways; all are consistent with thederived X-ray fluxes being of <=0.1 dex accuracy. In particular,there is agreement with previously published X-ray fluxes for galaxiesin common with a 1991 study by Roberts et al. and a 1992 study byFabbiano et al. The data presented here will be used in further studiesto characterize the X-ray output of galaxies of various morphologicaltypes and thus to enable the determination of the major sourcescontributing to the X-ray emission from galaxies.

Near-IR photometry of disk galaxies: Search for nuclear isophotal twist and double bars
We present a near-IR, mainly $H$ band, photometry of 72 nearby (d <40 Mpc) disk galaxies. The main goal of the survey was to search forisophotal twist inside their nuclear regions. As the twist can be due insome cases to projection effects, rather than resulting from a dynamicalphenomenon, we deproject -- under the simplifying assumption of a 2Dgeometry -- all galaxies whose disk position angle and inclination areknown, the latter not exceeding 75 degrees. We show the ellipticity,position angle and surface brightness radial profiles, and discuss how aprojection of 2D and 3D bars can distort the isophotes, give an illusionof a non-existing double bar or mask a real one. We report 15 newdouble-barred galaxies and confirm 2 detected previously. We identify 14additional twists not known before and we also find nuclear triaxialstructures in three SA galaxies. The frequency of Seyferts amonggalaxies with nuclear bars or twists is high. Since these observationsare part of a larger survey, the interpretation of the results will begiven in a future paper, as soon as the number of objects grows enoughto permit meaningful statistics. As a secondary product, we publishstructural parameters (length and axis ratio) of large-scale bars inorder to extend still scarce data on bars in the near-IR.

Surface photometry of binary galaxies. I. A multicolour study of morphologies due to the interaction.
We present the multicolour (B, V, R) surface photometry of 53 doublegalaxies. All the pairs belong to the catalogue of Reduzzi &Rampazzo (1995) containing objects selected according to theKarachentsev (1972) criteria. We comment on the morphological,structural and photometric characteristics of pairs and their members.Different classes of interaction induced phenomena, both among early andlate-type galaxies, are considered. We found that few early-typegalaxies show fine structures. Grand design structure is more frequentlydetected in binary than in field spirals both for barred and non barred,confirming Elmegreen & Elmegreen's (1982) study. The colour of thetails is consistent with the stripping hypothesis since it is similar tothe progenitor galaxy outskirts. Among our objects we have no evidentsign of induced star formation in tails. Rings appear on average bluerthan the disc as a whole.

The fundamental plane of early-type galaxies: stellar populations and mass-to-light ratio.
We analyse the residuals to the fundamental plane (FP) of ellipticalgalaxies as a function of stellar-population indicators; these are basedon the line-strength parameter Mg_2_ and on UBVRI broad-band colors, andare partly derived from new observations. The effect of the stellarpopulations accounts for approximately half the observed variation ofthe mass-to-light ratio responsible for the FP tilt. The residual tiltcan be explained by the contribution of two additional effects: thedependence of the rotational support, and possibly that of the spatialstructure, on the luminosity. We conclude to a constancy of thedynamical-to-stellar mass ratio. This probably extends to globularclusters as well, but the dominant factor would be here the luminositydependence of the structure rather than that of the stellar population.This result also implies a constancy of the fraction of dark matter overall the scalelength covered by stellar systems. Our compilation ofinternal stellar kinematics of galaxies is appended.

Candidates for a southern extension of the Karachentsev catalogue of isolated pairs of galaxies.
Not Available

A Catalog of Stellar Velocity Dispersions. II. 1994 Update
A catalog of central velocity dispersion measurements is presented,current through 1993 September. The catalog includes 2474 measurementsof 1563 galaxies. A standard set of 86 galaxies is defined, consistingof galaxies with at least three reliable, concordant measurements. It issuggested that future studies observe some of these standard galaxies sothat different studies can be normalized to a consistent system. Allmeasurements are reduced to a normalized system using these standards.

Integrated photoelectric magnitudes and color indices of bright galaxies in the Johnson UBV system
The photoelectric total magnitudes and color indices published in theThird Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) are based on ananalysis of approximately equals 26,000 B, 25,000 B-V, and 17,000 U-Bmultiaperture measurements available up to mid 1987 from nearly 350sources. This paper provides the full details of the analysis andestimates of internal and external errors in the parameters. Thederivation of the parameters is based on techniques described by theVaucouleurs & Corwin (1977) whereby photoelectric multiaperture dataare fitted by mean Hubble-type-dependent curves which describe theintegral of the B-band flux and the typical B-V and U-B integrated colorgradients. A sophisticated analysis of the residuals of thesemeasurements from the curves was made to allow for the random andsystematic errors that effect such data. The result is a homogeneous setof total magnitudes BTA total colors(B-V)T and (U-B)T, and effective colors(B-V)e and (U-B)e for more than 3000 brightgalaxies in RC3.

The dependence of the cool matter content on galaxy morphology in galaxies of types E/S0, S0, and SA
Using the material assembled in earlier papers, we examine the manner inwhich the interstellar matter content varies along the Hubble sequencefrom S0 galaxies to Sa galaxies selected from the RSA2 compilation. Forthis we make use of a new and more detailed classification which isdescribed here as applied to these early disk/spiral galaxies. Theprominence of the disk in S0's and the visibility of features (H IIregions) in the Sa's serve as the basis for the subtypes. Three S0categories: subtle, intermediate, and pronounced, and four Sadescriptors: very early, early, intermediate, and late are assigned tothe galaxies. It is found that the total amount of hydrogen (H I + H2)is a function of subtype, being low in the S0's and rising smoothly fromthe early Sa's to the later Sa's. The average surface density ofhydrogen exceeds 3 solar masses/pc-squared only in the latest subtypesof the Sa's. We conclude that the prominence of the disk of a galaxyclosely follows the amount of cool gas which the disk contains.

General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.

Interstellar matter in early-type galaxies. I - The catalog
A catalog is given of the currently available measurements ofinterstellar matter in the 467 early-type galaxies listed in the secondedition of the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog of Bright Galaxies. Themorphological type range is E, SO, and Sa. The ISM tracers are emissionin the following bands: IRAS 100 micron, X-ray, radio, neutral hydrogen,and carbon monoxide. Nearly two-thirds of the Es and SOs have beendetected in one or more of these tracers. Additional observed quantitiesthat are tabulated include: magnitude, colors, radial velocity, centralvelocity dispersion, maximum of the rotation curve, angular size, 60micron flux, and supernovae. Qualitative statements as to the presenceof dust or emission lines, when available in the literature, are given.Quantities derivative from the observed values are also listed andinclude masses of H I, CO, X-ray gas, and dust as well as an estimate ofthe total mass and mass-to-luminosity ratio of the individual galaxies.

The supergalactic plane redshift survey
Redshift measurements, about 1000 of which are new, are presented for1314 galaxies in a survey toward the apex of the large-scale streamingflow for ellipticals. The velocity histogram shows that the excess ingalaxy number counts in this area is due to a substantial concentrationof galaxies with discrete peaks at V about 3000 km/s and V about 4500km/s. After correction for the sampling function, the centroid of thedensity distribution is found to be near V about 4500 km/s.Normalization to the more extensive SSRS survey, which was selected bythe same criteria, shows that the region studied contains a considerableoverdensity of galaxies from 2000 to 6000 km/s. This result is in goodagreement with the 'great attractor' model suggested by Lynden-Bell etal. (1988) which attributes the peculiar motions of elliptical galaxiesover a large region of space to an extensive mass overdensity whichincludes the Hydra-Centaurus and Pavo-Indus superclusters. The centroidof the density enhancement is also consistent with new data by Dresslerand Faber (1990) of peculiar motions of elliptical and spiral galaxies,both of which show a zero crossing of the Hubble line at approximately4500-5000 km/s.

New velocity dispersions and photometry for E and S0 galaxies in the great attractor
New spectroscopy and photometry have been obtained for 136 ellipticaland S0 galaxies in the direction of the large-scale streaming flowattributed to the great attractor. Measurements of central velocitydispersion (sigma), total B magnitudes B(T), the photometric parameterDn, and the absorption-line index Mg2 are presented. Both internal andexternal comparisons indicate that measurements of log sigma areaccurate to 0.05 dex, B(T) to 0.15 mag, Dn to 0.015 dex, and Mg2 to0.017 mag. These data have been used by Dressler and Faber (1990) toestimate distances for these galaxies via the Dn-sigma relation. It isshown in this paper that the Dn-Mg2 relation also predicts the sametrends of peculiar velocity with distance, but with less accuracy. Therelative accuracy of other distance indicators for elliptical galaxiesis also discussed.

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Right ascension:12h06m44.60s
Aparent dimensions:3.631′ × 2.692′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 4106

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