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Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

A survey of proper-motion stars. X - The early evolution of the Galaxy's halo
The recent history of work bearing on the early chemical/dynamicalevolution of the Galaxy, and the relation of the halo population to thedisk population(s) are discussed. In particular, the mean rotationalvelocity v(rot), and planar orbital eccentricity (e) are considered asfunctions of time, inferred from mean metallicity. For m/H less thanabout -1, signs of dynamicl evolution in mean v(rot) or mean e are notdetected. It is argued that (e) for metal-poor stars is about 0.6, not0.8 as previously believed, and is even lower in the three-dimensionalcase. It is pointed out that all the data are consistent with thehigh-velocity, low metallicity halo population having had a chemical anddynamical history almost independent of the Galactic disk. It isproposed that the halo was assembled from mergers of small satelliteswith the Galaxy along the lines discussed by Searle and Zinn (1978). Itis further proposed that the Galactic bulge originated from the gaseousoutflow from the Galaxy's halo and these fragments.

An infrared image of the Hourglass region of M8
An infrared image of the Hourglass region of M8 shows several featuresof interest. The young O star Herschel 36 has a companion which isprobably pre-main sequence. The nebulosity which links Herschel 36 tothe Hourglass is more extensive than previously realized. A centralsource has been found in the Hourglass, and is probably responsible forits illumination. Finally, many stars are found to the west of Herschel36, with a projected density comparable to that in the densest part ofthe Orion Nebula.

Mass-to-light ratio of elliptical galaxies
Two virial formulas, which take into account the observed flattening,are established for oblate ellipticals obeying the r to the 1/4th powerlaw and used to derive the mean mass to light ratios in their centralpart. One of them, which requires the knowledge of only one kinematicalparameter, the central (stellar) velocity dispersion, is applied to 197ellipticals. The other one, which uses in addition the maximum stellarrotation velocity, is shown to be less sensitive to the unknown trueflattenings and to possible velocity anisotropies. It is applied to 30ellipticals. Both methods give a mean blue mass to luminosity ratio ofabout 13, without any clear correlation with the absolute luminosity ofthe galaxy.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:16h43m04.50s
Aparent dimensions:3.162′ × 2.344′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
NGC 2000.0NGC 6223

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