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The Stellar Disk Thickness of Low Surface Brightness Galaxies
We present surface photometry results for a sample of 11 edge-ongalaxies observed with the 6 m telescope at the Special AstrophysicalObservatory, Russia. The photometric scale length, scale height, andcentral surface brightness of the stellar disks of our sample galaxiesare estimated. We show that four galaxies in our sample, which arevisually classified as objects of the lowest surface brightness class inthe Revised Flat Galaxy Catalog, have bona fide low surface brightness(LSB) disks. We find from a comparison of photometric scales that thestellar disks of LSB galaxies are thinner than those of high surfacebrightness (HSB) galaxies. There is a clear correlation between thecentral surface brightness of the stellar disk and itsvertical-to-radial scale ratio. The masses of spherical subsystems (darkhalo + bulge) and the dark halo masses are obtained for the samplegalaxies based on the thickness of their stellar disks. The LSB galaxiestend to harbor more massive spherical subsystems than the HSB objects,whereas no systematic difference in the dark halo masses is foundbetween LSB and HSB galaxies. At the same time, the inferredmass-to-luminosity ratio for the LSB disks appears to be systematicallyhigher than for HSB disks.

A list of peculiar velocities of RFGC galaxies
A list of radial velocities, HI line widths and peculiar velocities of1327 galaxies from the RFGC catalogue has been compiled using actualobservations and literature data. The list can be used for studying bulkmotions of galaxies, construction of the field of peculiar velocitiesand other tasks.

Box- and peanut-shaped bulges. I. Statistics
We present a classification for bulges of a complete sample of ~ 1350edge-on disk galaxies derived from the RC3 (Third Reference Catalogue ofBright Galaxies, de Vaucouleurs et al. \cite{rc3}). A visualclassification of the bulges using the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) inthree types of b/p bulges or as an elliptical type is presented andsupported by CCD images. NIR observations reveal that dust extinctiondoes almost not influence the shape of bulges. There is no substantialdifference between the shape of bulges in the optical and in the NIR.Our analysis reveals that 45% of all bulges are box- and peanut-shaped(b/p). The frequency of b/p bulges for all morphological types from S0to Sd is > 40%. In particular, this is for the first time that such alarge frequency of b/p bulges is reported for galaxies as late as Sd.The fraction of the observed b/p bulges is large enough to explain theb/p bulges by bars. Partly based on observations collected at ESO/LaSilla (Chile), DSAZ/Calar Alto (Spain), and Lowell Observatory/Flagstaff(AZ/U.S.A.). Tables 6 and 7 are only available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

The Revised Flat Galaxy Catalogue.
We present a new improved and completed version of the Flat GalaxyCatalogue (FGC) named the Revised Flat Galaxy Catalogue (RFGC)containing 4236 thin edge-on spiral galaxies and covering the whole sky.The Catalogue is intended to study large-scale cosmic streamings as wellas other problems of observational cosmology. The dipole moment ofdistribution of the RFGC galaxies (l = 273 degr; b =+19 degr) lieswithin statistical errors (+/-10 degr) in the direction of the LocalGroup motion towards the Microwave Background Radiation (MBR).

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

On the local radio luminosity function of galaxies. I. The Virgo cluster
We cross-correlate the galaxies brighter than m_B=18 in the Virgocluster with the radio sources in the NVSS survey (1.4 GHz), resultingin 180 radio-optical identifications. We determine the radio luminosityfunction of the Virgo galaxies, separately for the early- andlate-types. Late-type galaxies develop radio sources with a probabilityproportional to their optical luminosity. In fact their radio/optical(R_B) distribution is gaussian, centered at log R_B ~ -0.5, i.e. theradio luminosity is ~ 0.3 of the optical one. The probability oflate-type galaxies to develop radio sources is almost independent oftheir detailed Hubble type, except for Sa (and S0+S0a) which are afactor of ~ 5 less frequent than later types at any R_B. Giantelliptical galaxies feed ``monster" radio sources with a probabilitystrongly increasing with mass. However the frequency of fainter radiosources is progressively less sensitive on the system mass. The faintestgiant E galaxies (M_B=-17) have a probability of feeding low power radiosources similar to that of dwarf E galaxies as faint as M_B=-13. Table~1is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Study of the Virgo Cluster Using the B-Band Tully-Fisher Relation
The distances to spiral galaxies of the Virgo cluster are estimatedusing the B-band Tully-Fisher (TF) relation, and the three-dimensionalstructure of the cluster is studied. The analysis is made for a completespiral sample taken from the Virgo Cluster catalog of Binggeli, Sandage,& Tammann. The sample contains virtually all spiral galaxies down toM_{BT}=-15 mag at 40 Mpc. A careful examination is made ofthe selection effect and errors of the data. We estimate distance to 181galaxies, among which distances to 89 galaxies are reasonably accurate.We compare these distances to those obtained by other authors on agalaxy-by-galaxy basis. We find reasonable consistency of theTully-Fisher distance among various authors. In particular, it is foundthat the discrepancy in the distance among the different analyses withdifferent data is about 15%, when good H I and photometric data areavailable. We clarify that the different results on the Virgo distanceamong authors arise from the choice of the sample and interpretation ofthe data. We confirm that the Tully-Fisher relation for the Virgocluster shows an unusually large scatter sigma = 0.67 mag, compared tothat for other clusters. We conclude that this scatter is not due to theintrinsic dispersion of the Tully-Fisher relation, but due to a largedepth effect of the Virgo cluster, which we estimate to be extended from12 Mpc to 30 Mpc. The distribution of H I--deficient galaxies isconcentrated at around 14--20 Mpc, indicating the presence of a core atthis distance, and this agrees with the distance estimated for M87 andother elliptical galaxies with other methods. We show also that thespatial number density of spiral galaxies takes a peak at this distance,while a simple average of all spiral galaxy distances gives 20 Mpc. Thefact that the velocity dispersion of galaxies takes a maximum at 14--18Mpc lends an additional support for the distance to the core. Thesefeatures cannot be understood if the large scatter of the TF relation ismerely due to the intrinsic dispersion. The structure of the VirgoCluster we infer from the Tully-Fisher analysis looks like a filamentwhich is familiar to us in a late phase of structure formation in thepancake collapse in hierarchical clustering simulations. This Virgofilament lies almost along the line of sight, and this is the originthat has led a number of authors to much confusion in the Virgo distancedeterminations. We show that the M87 subcluster is located around 15--18Mpc, and it consists mainly of early-type type spiral galaxies inaddition to elliptical and S0 galaxies. There are very few late-typespiral galaxies in this subcluster. The spiral rich M49 subclusterconsists of a mixture of all types of spiral galaxies and is located atabout 22 Mpc. The two other known clouds, W and M, are located at about30--40 Mpc and undergo infall toward the core. The M cloud contains fewearly type spirals. We cannot discriminate, however, whether thesesubclusters or clouds are isolated aggregates or merely parts offilamentary structure. Finally, we infer the Hubble constant to be 82+/- 10 km s-1 Mpc-1.

Spectroscopy of Edge-On Spirals
We present HI line observations of \Ntot edge-on spiral galaxies,extracted from the Flat Galaxy Catalog of Karachentsev \etal (1993).Fluxes, systemic velocities and line widths are given for \Ndet detectedgalaxies, as well as search parameters for \Nnod undetected systems.Widths are corrected for instrumental broadening, smoothing,signal-to-noise and profile shape, and an estimate of the error on thewidth is given. When corrected for turbulent broadening and inclinationangle of the disks, the velocity widths presented here can provide theappropriate line width parameter needed to derive distances via theTully-Fisher relation.

Structure analysis of edge-on spiral galaxies.
The stellar distribution of a small sample of edge-on spiral galaxies isexamined in B, V, R, and I by fitting model distributions to the lightprofiles, both perpendicular to the galaxy planes and along the majoraxes. We have developed a method to compare the fits for the modelsobtained for different galaxies by introducing a global goodness-of-fitparameter P_ij_. In general, the best fitting vertical model is morepeaked than expected for an isothermal sheet distribution, i.e. it iseither an exponential light distribution or a sech(z)-model. The mostlikely explanation for the deviations from an exponential or a sech(z)distribution at small z is dust extinction, whereas the excess lightdetected at large z for a few early-type spirals could be due to a thickdisk component. The constancy of the exponential scale height of boththe thin and the thick disks as a function of position along the majoraxis is confirmed, although it seems to lose strength in the radialouter parts. It is found that the vertical scale parameters for both thethin and the thick disks are confined within narrow ranges. We show thatthe scale lengths vary as a function of z-distance from the galaxyplanes. The smallest scale lengths were measured in the galaxy planes.This can be explained by a combination of absorption effects and a youngstellar population, that is supposed to be present in the galaxy planes.The mean ratio of the radial to the vertical scale parameter, h_R_/z_0_,is 5.9+/-0.4.

Surface photometry of spiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster region
Photographic surface photometry is carried out for 246 spiral galaxiesin the Virgo cluster region north of declination + 5 deg. The samplecontains all spiral galaxies of 'certain' and 'possible' Virgo membersin the Virgo Cluster Catalogue of Binggeli, Sandage, & Tammann. Thesample also includes those galaxies which were used in the Tully-Fisheranalyses of the Virgo cluster given in the literature. A catalog ispresented for positions, B-band total magnitudes and inclinations forthese galaxies, and they are compared with the data given in previousstudies.

Distribution of the spin vectors of the disk galaxies of the Virgo cluster. I. The catalogue of 310 disk galaxies in the Virgo area.
Not Available

Flat galaxy catalogue
A systematic search for disklike edge-on-galaxies with a diameter largerthan a = 40 arcsec and a major-to-minor axis ratio a/b greater than 7was carried out by means of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey and theESO/SERC survey. As a result, we present a new catalog of flat galaxies(FGC) containing 4455 objects and covering about 56 percent of the wholesky for the first time. The catalogue is assigned to study large-scalecosmic streamings and other problems of observational cosmology.

The kinematics of the Virgo cluster revisited
The paper updates the velocity data of Virgo cluster galaxies andreconsiders the kinematic structure of the Virgo cluster. New velocitiesare given for 144 galaxies listed in the Virgo Cluster Catalog (VCC).Improved velocities are given for another 131 VCC galaxies. The Virgocluster is disentangled from its surrounding clouds of galaxies, and thelikely members of each of these clouds are listed. The velocitydistribution of dwarf elliptical cluster members is found to be highlyasymmetric. This phenomenon is interpreted as evidence for the imminentmerging of two subclusters in the core region, which points to thedynamical youth of the Virgo cluster. The mean heliocentric velocity ofthe Virgo cluster is estimated at 1050 +/- 35 km/s.

Flat edge-on galaxies on the Tully-Fischer diagram.
For a sample of 114 northern galaxies with angular diameters greaterthan 2 arcmin and apparent axial ratios greater than 7, relations arediscussed between their global parameters: the inner motion amplitude W,the blue luminosity, the linear diameter, and the neutral hydrogen mass.Taken as a distance indicator for the given W, these parameters exhibitnearly the same efficiency. Outside the Local Supercluster the lineardiameter of the flat edge-on galaxy produces a standard deviation about25 percent as a distance estimate. The total mass-to-luminosity ratio offlat galaxies increases when their mean surface brightness decreases.

An Effelsberg/VLA radio continuum survey of an optically selected sample of edge-on spiral galaxies
The results of an extensive radio continuum survey at 5 GHz with the 100m Effelsberg telescope and the Very Large Array of a large sample ofedge-on spiral galaxies (181 galaxies) are presented. The aim of thissurvey was to find candidates for more extensive studies on radio halosand on outflow phenomena from the nuclei of these galaxies.

The extragalactic distance scale. II - The unbiased distance to the Virgo Cluster from the B-band Tully-Fisher relation
The behavior of the B-band Tully-Fisher (TF) relation with respect tothe observational biases and parameter uncertainties is studied from analmost complete sample of spiral galaxies belonging to the VirgoCluster. The strong influence of the limiting apparent magnitude whenusing the direct TF relation is confirmed. A distance modulus of 31.4 +or - 0.2 is found along with a corresponding H(0) = 68 + or - 8km/s/Mpc, assuming a cosmological velocity of the cluster V = 1300 + or- 100 km/s. The Virgo S and S-prime clouds are shown to lie atsignificantly different distances. Different distance moduli found byother authors are explained.

Periodicities in galaxy redshifts
Using new data for unassociated galaxies with wide H I profiles andvalues of period and solar motion predicted by Tifft and Cocke (1984), aperiodicity has been found which is significant at the conventional 5percent level. Together with Tifft's work on galaxy pairs and smallgroups, this result appears to provide evidence in favor of thehypothesis that measured galaxy redshifts occur in steps of a littlemore than 72 km/s or a simple multiple of this period.

The pattern of H I deficiency in the Virgo cluster
A sample of 160 galaxies in the Virgo region, including 16 new 21-cmprofiles in the Virgo 5-degree core obtained with the 305-m Arecibotelescope, are examined to investigate the severe depletion ofinterstellar H I within spiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster core. Asimilar and non-Gaussian distribution is found for the distribution of HI deficiencies of both faint galaxies and brighter spirals, andpopulations of galaxies with normal abundances of interstellar H I, andthose of gas poor objects exhibiting a late-type morphology, are bothnoted. One-sixth of the sample within the Virgo 5-degree core have lostmore than 90 percent by mass of their original neutral hydrogen, andthree quarters of the galaxies found within 2.5 degrees of M87 are H Ipoor by more than a factor of three. The most deficient galaxies arealso found to be the ones with the smallest ratios of H I to opticaldisk size, and H I poor galaxies are redder than normal, indicating thatstar formation has been quenched.

HI-observations of galaxies in the Virgo cluster of galaxies. I - The data
New H I-data for a large number of bright galaxies inside the 10 degradius area of the Virgo cluster of galaxies have been obtained with the100 m radiotelescope at Effelsberg. A total of 234 galaxies was observedfor the first time. Among them, 53 have been detected providing newaccurate radial velocities. Data from the literature have been compiled.Together with the new data, they form a (nearly homogeneous) set of H Iobservations for more than 450 galaxies.

Studies of the Virgo Cluster. II - A catalog of 2096 galaxies in the Virgo Cluster area.
The present catalog of 2096 galaxies within an area of about 140 sq degapproximately centered on the Virgo cluster should be an essentiallycomplete listing of all certain and possible cluster members,independent of morphological type. Cluster membership is essentiallydecided by galaxy morphology; for giants and the rare class of highsurface brightness dwarfs, membership rests on velocity data. While 1277of the catalog entries are considered members of the Virgo cluster, 574are possible members and 245 appear to be background Zwicky galaxies.Major-to-minor axis ratios are given for all galaxies brighter than B(T)= 18, as well as for many fainter ones.

Studies of the Virgo cluster. IV - an Atlas of Virgo cluster spiral galaxies: The luminosity range within a given spiral type
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1985AJ.....90..395S&db_key=AST

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ICIC 3608
J/AJ/90/1681VCC 1768

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