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Arc-Shaped and Spheroidal Stellar Complexes
Complexes of young clusters and high-luminosity stars in the shape ofregular, circular arcs have been found in a number of galaxies, firstand foremost the LMC, NGC 6946, and M83. These shapes are found even instrongly inclined galaxies, suggesting that the observed arcs areprojections of partial spherical shells. Obviously, these stellar shellsmust have formed from gaseous shells swept up by some source of centralpressure and become gravitationally unstable. The power of this sourcecorresponds to several dozen supernova explosions; however, its natureremains unclear. A central cluster providing a source of O stars andsupernovae is usually absent. The presence of multiple arcs locatedclose to each other can be explained by the fall of a swarm of fragmentsor by the progenitor stars originating in a single peculiar starcluster, implying the existence of stellar objects capable of givingrise to explosions with energies an order of magnitude higher than thoseof individual supernovae. The same objects may be responsible forgamma-ray bursts. It may be that only the most massive clusters withfrequent or especially powerful supernova explosions are capable ofproducing HI supershells. Otherwise, it is impossible to explain why nosupershells have been found around numerous clusters that should becapable of producing them according to current theories. The presence ofstar clusters in shell-like structures provides extremely importantinformation about the physical conditions in and the ages of the initialgaseous shells, making stellar arcs the best available laboratory forstudies of triggered star formation.

The Progenitor Masses of Wolf-Rayet Stars and Luminous Blue Variables Determined from Cluster Turnoffs. I. Results from 19 OB Associations in the Magellanic Clouds
We combine new CCD UBV photometry and spectroscopy with those from theliterature to investigate 19 Magellanic Cloud OB associations thatcontain Wolf-Rayet (W-R) and other types of evolved, massive stars. Ourspectroscopy reveals a wealth of newly identified interesting objects,including early O-type supergiants, a high-mass, double-lined binary inthe SMC, and, in the LMC, a newly confirmed luminous blue variable (LBV;R85), a newly discovered W-R star (Sk -69°194), and a newly foundluminous B[e] star (LH 85-10). We use these data to provide precisereddening determinations and construct physical H-R diagrams for theassociations. We find that about half of the associations may be highlycoeval, with the massive stars having formed over a short period(Δτ<1 Myr). The (initial) masses of the highest massunevolved stars in the coeval clusters may be used to estimate themasses of the progenitors of W-R and other evolved stars found in theseclusters. Similarly, the bolometric luminosities of the highest massunevolved stars can be used to determine the bolometric corrections(BCs) for the evolved stars, providing a valuable observational basisfor evaluating recent models of these complicated atmospheres. What wefind is the following: (1) Although their numbers is small, it appearsthat the W-R stars in the SMC come from only the highest mass (greaterthan 70 Msolar) stars. This is in accord with ourexpectations that at low metallicities only the most massive andluminous stars will have sufficient mass loss to become W-R stars. (2)In the LMC, the early-type WN (WNE) stars occur in clusters whoseturnoff masses range from 30 to 100 Msolar or more. Thissuggests that possibly all stars with mass greater than 30Msolar pass through a WNE stage at LMC metallicities. (3) Theone WC star in the SMC is found in a cluster with a turnoff mass of 70Msolar, the same as that for the SMC WN stars. In the LMC,the WC stars are found in clusters with turnoff masses of 45Msolar or higher, similar to what is found for the LMC WNstars. Thus we conclude that WC stars come from essentially the samemass range as do WN stars and indeed are often found in the sameclusters. This has important implications for interpreting therelationship between metallicity and the WC/WN ratio found in LocalGroup galaxies, which we discuss. (4) The LBVs in our sample come fromvery high mass stars (greater than 85 Msolar), similar towhat is known for the Galactic LBV η Car, suggesting that only themost massive stars go through an LBV phase. Recently, Ofpe/WN9 starshave been implicated as LBVs after one such star underwent an LBV-likeoutburst. However, our study includes two Ofpe/WN9 stars, BE 381 and Br18, which we find in clusters with much lower turnoff masses (25-35Msolar). We suggest that Ofpe/WN9 stars are unrelated to``true'' LBVs: not all ``LBV-like outbursts'' may have the same cause.Similarly, the B[e] stars have sometimes been described as LBV-like.Yet, the two stars in our sample appear to come from a large mass range(30-60 Msolar). This is consistent with other studies,suggesting that B[e] stars cover a large range in bolometricluminosities. (5) The bolometric corrections of early WN and WC starsare found to be extreme, with an average BC(WNE) of -6.0 mag and anaverage BC(WC4) of -5.5 mag. These values are considerably more negativethan those of even the hottest O-type stars. However, similar valueshave been found for WNE stars by applying Hillier's ``standard model''for W-R atmospheres. We find more modest BCs for the Ofpe/WN9 stars(BC=-2 to -4 mag), also consistent with recent analysis done with thestandard model. Extension of these studies to the Galactic clusters willprovide insight into how massive stars evolve at differentmetallicities.

Distribution of stellar mass in young star clusters of our Galaxy and nearby galaxies
Stellar mass distribution in young star clusters of our Galaxy, theMagellanic Clouds and the nearby local groups of galaxies has been usedto investigate the universality of initial mass function and presence ofmass segregation in these systems. There is no obvious dependence of theMF slope on either galactocentric distance or age of the galactic openstar clusters. A comparison of initial mass function slopes that havebeen measured in star clusters and associations of our and nearbygalaxies indicates that the slope is independent of the spatialconcentration of the star formed, galactic characteristics includingmetallicity, and at least down to 0.85 M?, the stellar mass range.Effects of mass segregation have been observed in good number of youngstellar groups of our Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds. As their ages aremuch smaller than their dynamical evolution times, star formationprocesses seems to be responsible for the observed mass segregation inthem.

UBVI imaging photometry of NGC 6231
CCD UBVI photometry in the field of the open cluster NGC 6231 wasobtained for 1060 stars down to V~ 19 mag. Memberships, reddening,distance and age of this cluster were investigated. Its lower sequencedisplays a notorious bend at V~ 13.5 mag followed by a high number offaint stars showing a large magnitude spread at constant colour. Thisdistribution of stars does not seem to be produced by a mereaccumulation of field stars seen in the direction of the cluster but bya real star excess in the zone. The evidence suggests these stars areserious candidates to be cluster members caught in their way towards theZAMS. Fitting them with pre main sequence isochrones an age spread ofabout 10 Myr is obtained. The luminosity and mass functions were foundto be flat for -7.5 < MV < 1.5 and from 3 to 80 {calMsun} respectively. Based on observations collected at theUniversity of Toronto Southern Observatory, Las Campanas, Chile. Table 1is available only in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp( or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Induced star formation and the origin of gamma-ray bursts
New arguments are presented in favor of the hypothesis that three giantstellar arcs and the LMC4 supershell in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC)are relicts of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), whose progenitors escaped fromthe nearby old, rich star cluster NGC 1978. This may also be true of thebinary X-ray sources concentrated in this same area and the object SNRN49-SGR 0526-66, located 18' from the cluster. All these objects may begenetically related to each other and to objects such as SN 1998bw-GRB980425. The occurrence of five GRBs in the LMC over the last ~50 Myr isquite plausible. The rate of GRBs may be high, and they may be triggersfor the formation of many HI supershells and regions of active starformation.

Integrated UBV Photometry of 624 Star Clusters and Associations in the Large Magellanic Cloud
We present a catalog of integrated UBV photometry of 504 star clustersand 120 stellar associations in the LMC, part of them still embedded inemitting gas. We study age groups in terms of equivalent SWB typesderived from the (U-B) X (B-V) diagram. The size of the spatialdistributions increases steadily with age (SWB types), whereas adifference of axial ratio exists between the groups younger than 30 Myrand those older, which implies a nearly face-on orientation for theformer and a tilt of ~45^deg^ for the latter groups. Asymmetries arepresent in the spatial distributions, which, together with thenoncoincidence of the centroids for different age groups, suggest thatthe LMC disk was severely perturbed in the past.

CCD photometry of the young association NGC 1962-65-66-70 in the Large Magellanic Cloud.
We present CCD data in the Johnson passbands B and V of the youngassociation NGC 1962-65-66-70 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We find theassociation to show an age spread in the range 4 to 9Myr. Some signs fora propagation of star formation from the south-eastern to the northernpart of the region can be found, but they are based on very few stars.The slope of the luminosity function is γ=0.27+/-0.02 for stars ofthe magnitude range -8

Massfunctions in the Large Magellanic Cloud.
Not Available

The OB association LH 58 in the Large Magellanic Cloud
We present charge coupled device (CCD) photometry and spectroscopy forstars in Lucke-Hodge 58, an isolated OB association in the LargeMagellanic Cloud (LMC) northwest of 30 Doradus. The photometric catalogcontains 839 stars with UBV magnitudes complete to V approximately = 19.We have obtained spectra and classified 35 stars; combined with previouspublished spectral types, we find 22 O-type stars. The earliest type isO3-4 V, and there are three Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in the association.The slope of the initial mass function, Gamma = -1.7 +/- 0.3, is in goodagreement with other LMC associations. The presence of several evolvedsupergiants with masses about 15-25 solar mass suggests that some starformation took place as early as 10 million years ago, but the majorityof stars formed coevally within the past few million years.

The initial mass function for massive stars in the Magellanic Clouds. 1: UBV photometry and color-magnitude diagrams for 14 OB associations
UBV charge coupled device (CCD) photometry has been obtained for 14 OBassociations in the Magellanic Clouds using the University of Toronto's0.6 m telescope and the Carnegie Institution of Washington's 1.0 mreflector, both on Las Campanas, Chile. The data are presented and usedto construct color-magnitude diagrams for the purposes of investigatingthe massive-star content of the associations.

CCD photometry of the young open cluster NGC 1962-65-66-70.
Not Available

Integrated UV magnitudes of the Large Magellanic Cloud associations
UV photographs (2600 A, 350 A passband) of the LMC have been obtained bythe S183 experiment during a Skylab mission. The background is estimatedand a method for deriving the integrated fluxes is presented. Theintegrated magnitudes of about 50 associations and isocontours of theirintensities are given, along with the B and V integrated magnitudes of13 associations.

A dynamical approach to the study of the bright young associations in the Large Magellanic Cloud
A model is presented and discussed in order to investigate how thedynamical properties of a young globular cluster depend on the detailsof the process of formation. Several parameters are constrained byapplying the model to some massive associations. Values of a number ofobservables are obtained. The approach provided in the paper shows how,qualitatively, the evolution of a newly formed object, after the gascloud expulsion, is affected by the features of the physical environmentwherein the formation process takes place.

Binary star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud
In a survey of the LMC cluster system, double clusters with acenter-to-center separation of less than 1.3 arcmin (18 pc) have beenidentified. It is inferred that a considerable fraction of these doubleclusters must be binaries since the calculated projection effects canaccount for only 31 of them. This inference is strongly supported by thefact that the ages available for some of the culsters of the sample (asdetermined from UBV photometry) are less than the computed times ofmerger or disruption of the binary cluster system. Furthermore, thespace distribution of these pairs indicates that these clusters belongto a very young or young population.

Age determination of extragalactic H II regions
The H II region evolution models of Copetti et al. (1984) were comparedwith observational data of H II regions in the Magellanic Clouds, M 33,M 101 and of 'isolated extragalactic H II regions'. IMF with chi = 3 or2.5 are inconsistent with a large number of H II regions. The moreuniform age distribution of isolated extragalactic H II regions obtainedthrough an IMF with chi = 2 suggests that this value is more realisticthan chi = 1 or 1.5. The H II region age estimates indicate a burst ofstar formation about 5.5 + or - 1.0 10 to the -6th yr ago in the LMC andabout 2.3 + or - 0.9 x 10 to the 6th yr ago in the SMC. The observedforbidden O III/H-beta gradient in M 33 and M 101 must be caused bycolor temperature variation of the radiation ionizing the H II regions.

A catalogue of stellar associations in the Large Magellanic Cloud.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1970AJ.....75..171L

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:05h27m00.00s
Apparent magnitude:8

Catalogs and designations:
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NGC 2000.0NGC 1962

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